Monday, October 15, 2018

Handwriting as a means of Cultural Identity(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

The uniqueness of handwriting is based on the discriminating elements of writing which are the clear manifestations of writing habits. These writing habits are greatly influenced and shaped by the culture and environment of a writer as handwriting is an acquired skill and environment is the matrix from which this art is acquired and cultivated [1]. The development of handwriting is complex which in part is culture dependent, and culture differs with locales and undergoes constant changes. Handwriting is a fine motor skill and teachings of the motor preliminaries (such as regularity and neatness, the introduction of cultural biases such as slant, counter clockwise rotations, left to right transport, posture and grasp) of writing varies from culture to culture. It can also be defined as a culture-bound activity, where many aspects of a language are greatly influenced by the culture of an individual. Writing is a potent and conventional system of symbols, marks and signs that encodes the utterances of a language. Cultural differences in verbal expression lead to distinctive pattern of native languages. Cheng et al. [2] investigated the impact of native language writing system on English handwriting and found the uniqueness in English handwriting characteristics peculiar to the ethnic origin of the writers.

Study on Some Improvised Revolvers(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

There are different types of small firearms including the revolver which is a rifled handgun having a revolving cylinder with chamber for loading cartridges. Revolvers of different calibers are available varying from 3mm to about 15 mm. These small firearms are usually used by police personnel/civilians for self-defense or the defense of others; and military personnel during combat. Considering the revolver's various advantages, such firearms are clandestinely manufactured by skilled gunsmith in various locations in India and smuggled out of the country by weapons traffickers for sale and global distribution. As such, gun control has become difficult. Out of total gun-violence cases received in the laboratory for last ten years, it is seen, 2% of the total (1635 number) cases are contributed by improvised revolvers. Such indigenous firearms are meticulously designed to fire different factory made ammunition.

Sudden Unexpected Death from Extraventricular Neurocytoma. A Case Report and Review of the Literature(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

Central neurocytomas (CNs) are benign tumors which usually arise from the lateral ventricles [1,2]. Extra ventricular neurocytomas (EVNs) refer to tumors with similar or identical biological and histopathological characteristics to CNs, but which arise from extra ventricular parenchymal tissue [2]. EVNs may occur at any age, but are usually seen in the third decade of life without sex preference [3]. Presenting symptoms obviously vary depending on the location of the tumor [4]. Histo pathologically, EVNs display a wide spectrum in morphology, such as the growth of monotonous neurocytes either in sheets, clusters, ribbons or rosettes, and neuropils dispersed in broad zones and contain a greater number of ganglion or ganglioid cells and astrocytes than CNs [5]. Furthermore, EVNs are often misdiagnosed as oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas or oligodendroglial tumors with neurocytic differentiation [6]. Immuno histo chemically, synaptophysin expression is positive and has been recognized as the most reliable diagnostic marker for identifying neuronal differentiation in brain neoplasia [7], and may thus play a vital role in the diagnosis of EVN tumors. Below we describe a rare case of sudden and unexpected death due to a clinically undiagnosed extra ventricular neurocytoma located on the midbrain.

New Record of Sarcophaga ruficornis, Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Iran, A Flesh Fly Species of Medical and Forensic Importance(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

New Record of Sarcophaga ruficornis, Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Iran, A Flesh Fly Species of Medical and Forensic Importance by Mohammad Assareh in JFSCI - Juniper Publishers

Forensic entomology is the study of cadaveric insect and other arthropods to medico-legal subjects in the judicial system [1]. The study of diptera is imperative in the forensic entomology field. This can be beneficial in determining post-mortem interval (PMI) and also obtain information about the site of death [2]. Insects have a specific pattern to occurrence the bodies, as diptera are mostly found in the early times of body decomposition [3]. Two main groups of insects are mostly attracted to corpse and provide valuable evidence in criminal investigation; the flies and the beetles [1]. The application of the entomological technique to determine the time of death consists of two main measures; the estimate based on the age of the oldest maggots that have developed on the body and estimate based on the development patterns [4].
The order dipteral comprises a number of forensically important families, viz. Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Piophilidae, and Fanniidae [5]. Sarcophagidae are a large family with approximately 2510 identified species. They are frequent in warm climates. Three subfamilies have been identified: Miltogramminae, Sarcophaginae and Paramacronychiinae. Sarcophaginae contains species that are important in medical entomology field [6]. Sarcophaginae larvae feed on excrements and carrions [1]

The Innocent v The Fickle Few': How Jurors Understand Random-Match-Probabilities and Judges' Directions when Reasoning about DNA and Refuting Evidence(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

DNA evidence is one of the most significant modern advances in the search for truth since the cross examination, but its format as a random-match-probability makes it difficult for people to assign an appropriate probative value [1]. While Frequentist theories propose that the presentation of the match as a frequency rather than a probability facilitates more accurate assessment [2], Exemplar-Cueing Theory predicts that the subjective weight assigned may be affected by the frequency or probability format, and how easily examples of the event, i.e., 'exemplars', are generated from linguistic cues that frame the match in light of further evidence [3]. This paper presents two juror research studies to examine the difficulties that jurors have in assigning appropriate probative value to DNA evidence when contradictory evidence is presented.
Study 1 showed that refuting evidence significantly reduced guilt judgments when exemplars were linguistically cued, even when the probability match and the refuting evidence had the same objective probative value. Moreover, qualitative reason for judgment responses revealed that interpreting refuting evidence was found to be complex and not necessarily reductive; refutation was found indicative of innocence or guilt depending on whether exemplars have been cued or not.

The Opioid Epidemic - A Generation in Crisis (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers

On March 29, 2017 President Donald Trump tapped Governor Chris Christie of New Jersey to lead a commission fighting the opioid addiction crisis. Not a bad choice, as political appointments go. Christie’s heartfelt words about addiction went viral in 2015 during the presidential campaign and won him praise. In his last year as governor, Christie has pursued enlightened policies to help stem the tide of opioid and other drug addiction in New Jersey. He has signed legislation limiting first-time narcotic prescriptions to five days’ worth of opioids, and requiring health insurers to cover at least a minimum of six months of substance abuse treatment.

The Original Method for Planning of Surgeries for Bowlegs Correction (NTAB) - Juniper Publishers

The high tibia osteotomy has become widespread for treatment of metaphysical and epi‐metaphyseal deformities of the shank [111]. However, even its technically correct execution does not guarantee the achieving of “ideal” shape of the legs, accepted in the plastic surgery.
The most widely used classification of the shape of the legs was suggested by AA Artemyev [6]. According to that, were distinguished the “ideal” shape of the legs, O-shape, X-shape and “false curvature” (Figure 1]. In case of “ideal” shape, the legs adjoin in three points located on the medial contours of both limbs. Point I is located at the level of distal metaepiphysis of the femurs, point Il-at the level of the border between the upper third and intermediate third of the diaphysis of the tibias, point Ill-at the level of the distal metaepiphysis of the tibias. The “ideal” shape implies the presence of three spindle-shaped gaps between the medial contours of the legs, bordered by the crotch, adjoining knee joints, soft tissues in the upper thirds of the shins and by the ankles. O-shape of the legs implies that the legs adjoin at point III only, in case of the X-shaped legs at point I, “false curvature” at points I and III. It is possible to determine the type of shape using photographs or long-films.

Friday, October 12, 2018

In vivo Acute Toxicity (LD50) Studies and Phytochemical Screening of Stem Bark Extracts of Detarium microcarpum Guilt and per (Caesalpinioideae) and Myosortisscorpioides L. (boraginaceae) - Juniper Publishers

The methanol extract of stem bark of Detarium microcarpum and Myosortisscorpioides were screened for in vivo safety pharmacological studies (acute toxicity LD50) using Swiss Albino Miceand for the presence of some phytochemicals. The result of the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of important secondary metabolites including alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids. The results showed that the plant extracts were toxic to the mice and caused death at a concentration of =2900mg/Kg and 1600mg/kg body weight of the live mice and LD50 of 3,807.89mg/Kg and =2,828.43mg/Kg respectively. The result of the study was a useful guide to a practically safe dose in an ongoing antimalarial study of extracts of these plants.

The Stupidity of Irrelevance - Juniper Publishers

The process of adapting institutions to new purposes is a normal part of cultural life. Generally, people are disposed to use whatever is at hand (be it a tool, organization or idea) to deal with a problem. This approach may be effective in resolving an immediate problem, but it means that the item may come to have a function different from if not at odds with its original role. The resulting cognitive state may then become one of schematic dissonance, with language strained to match up altered behavior to established values. In the extreme, a system becomes irrelevant to not only the environment but itself.

Thursday, October 11, 2018

Validation of a Novel and Sensitive RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Cefixime Trihydrate and Sodium Benzoate in Powder for Oral Suspension Dosage Form(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

A novel, specific, precise, simple, and accurate RP-HPLC method is developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Cefixime trihydrate (CFX) and Sodium benzoate (SDM) in powder for oral suspension (POS) dosage form. RP-HPLC method is performed on the Agilent Eclipse XDB C8 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm, 5μm particle size, using buffer solution of pH 2.8 containing 0.02M sodium dihydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, injection volume 10 μL and UV detection at 229 nm. And the total run time was 7.0 min. Linear relationships are obtained in the ranges of 5-200 μg/mL and 2-40 μg/mL for CFX and SDM, respectively, with significantly different Rt values of 2.203 and 3.970 min for CFX and SDM with correlation coefficients (r) >0.9999, limits of detection of 1.36 and 0.21 μgmL-1 and limits of quantitation was 4.14 and 0.64 μgmL-1 for CFX and SDM, respectively.

Persistence and Survival of Dried Sperm DNA under Ambient Conditions(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

The survival of sperm DNA in semen stains could be attributed by the resilient, protective structure of the sperm head which enables DNA in the sperm nucleus to survive for prolonged periods of time. The separation profiles of sperm DNA mixtures by differential extraction are peculiar only to sperm cells and thought to be associated with the intrinsic properties of semen. Experiments with dried semen on fabric stored under ambient conditions tested over a period of nine months (realistic maximum time for forensic casework submission) demonstrated the persistence and survival of sperm DNA with no allelic or locus dropouts. The separation profiles of sperm mixtures in the aging experiments detected no variations in the separation patterns of major-minor mixtures underlining the reliability of dried aged semen stains for interpretation in forensic casework.

School shootings: A Review of the Characteristics and the Psychopathology of the Perpetrators(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

The type of school violence that draws attention, especially since the decade 1990-1999, is school shootings. The most concerning element of these incidents is that they result in multiple victims and that these victims are usually chosen randomly. One of the first incidents with random victims was the shootings by Charles Whitman in Texas Tower in 1966. These shootings were committed by juveniles that no one expected, surprising many citizens of the local communities. The random choice of victims and the incapacity to predict the next attack creates a climate of fear in the public. Due to these reasons efforts are now being focused on identifying the “profile” of school shooters. The objective of this review is the study of the individual characteristics of school shooters from 6 to 25 years old, who perpetrated their attacks from 1966 to 2008.

Just Sayin’... (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers

It is clear that Hari is speaking here not just of intimate human bonds of attachment and affection, although these are central to his argument. People are also connected to one another, to their society, to families, neighborhoods, organizations, to their nation, to a sense of meaning and purpose, to a higher calling and sense of how they “fit” in the world. A sense of connectedness is relational, motivating, and deeply spiritual. It is inherent in the ways we are built as social beings. All these meanings flashed in front of me as I heard that pregnant phrase, and it sent me on my own journey of revisioning addiction for myself, my clients, and my students. This new frame of reference liberated me to explore.

Impact of Body Mass Index on Cognitive Attention Function in University Students (NTAB) - Juniper Publishers

The prevalence of obesity is increasing world-wide & the major causative factors are related to life style changes occurring due to socio-economic transition. Reduced physical activity at work due to mechanization, improved motorized transport, preferences for viewing Television & consumption of fast food & sweetened carbonated drinks resulted in positive energy balance in most of the Asian countries. As youths move through adolescence, their participation in physical activity declines markedly. The immediate risks of obesity for physical health are well established [1]. Overweight and obesity are a major public health issue despite increased awareness, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise in many countries. There is growing evidence that obesity is also associated with adverse Neuro-cognitive outcomes including Alzheimer's disease, stroke and vascular dementia. Research demonstrates an association between an adverse effect of obesity including attention with time taken [2].

Statistical Analysis of MicroRNA as Markers for Screening of Colon Cancer - Juniper Publishers

Diagnostic screening can potentially reduce mortality from Colon Cancer (CC) detection because it enhances premalignant detection. The commonly used immunological Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBTi) screening lacks sensitivity and imposes dietary restriction, resulting in decreased compliance. The Gold Standard for ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) screening "Colonoscopy" --not requiring dietary restriction-- is invasive, often accompanied by abdominal pain, has potential for complications, is not economical, and could also lead to mortality. Therefore, a noninvasive sensitive screen would be a more convenient test.

Duty Hours: More Rest? More Sleep? Less Learning? - Juniper Publishers

Residency duty hours have been a source of controversy since its inception.There is a delicate balance between providing residents with adequate patient exposure to gain clinical skills and confidence; while providing ample time for uninterrupted rest and learning. If this relationship is not carefully managed,excessive clinical time can lead to fatigue, thereby compromising learning and patient safety. However, limiting patient interaction too much can have equally negative effects. Since the revision of duty hours in 2011 this topic has generated more controversy related to decreased patient interaction and continuity of care, without improvement in patient safety, resident fatigue, and or resident learning.

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Denial of Access to Individuals Seeking Inpatient Care: Disposition Determinants and 12 Month Outcomes(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

Denial of Access to Individuals Seeking Inpatient Care: Disposition Determinants and 12 Month Outcomes by Steven P Segal in JFSCI - Juniper Publishers

Objective: This study considers the denial of access to inpatient care to those seeking hospitalization following psychiatric emergency service (PES) evaluation. It evaluates how civil commitment criteria, functional status, institutional constraints, social bias, and procedural justice indicators are likely to impact denial of care decisions, and considers 12 month outcomes.
Methods: PES evaluations of 583 patients in 9 California county general hospitals were examined via logit modeling to determine those factors contributing to the decision to deny access to inpatient care. Differences in the importance of influences on the decision making process and outcomes at 12 months are examined in two contrasts: first, admitted and released patients seeking care, then, the latter group versus all other patients. Outcome measures include numbers of deaths, violent crimes, and involuntary readmissions to the PES.

Geography of Crime and Geographic Information Systems(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

A link between human geography and criminology has been established as a result of the development of strong parallel that has existed in science for decades, similar to how criminology was predominantly put in the focus of sociology due to the series of paradigm shifts. Cognitive mapping, environmental perception and values and meanings attributed to “place”, “space” and “environment” have constructed a framework for interaction between criminology and human geography and for development of geography of crime. Spatial data analysis through geographic information systems is becoming more popular in crime mapping and crime analysis in contemporary police organizations and their usage is limitless. Geographic information system as an analytical instrument is also used for pattern analysis or for analysis of spatial crime distribution model and for researching spatial relations between crime and other demographic and socio-economic factors by using visual representation of spatial data. Along with usual implementation of traditional methods, geographic information systems contribute in directing crime investigations to a certain area of probable locations of residence, other activities and the offender’s itinerary. Due to its significant impact on the quality of police work, as well as policy and decision making on operational, tactical and strategic levels, modern police organizations use GIS in their daily work in order to prevent and reduce crime rates.

Substance Use and Mental Health Treatment Retention among Young Adults (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers

In Western and European cultures where marriage and parenthood are increasingly delayed to the late twenties and early thirties, a distinct developmental stage between adolescence and adulthood has been described as “emerging” or “young” adults [1]. As these individuals make the transition from adolescence to adulthood, when parental or authoritative and protective influences weaken, they begin to explore possible life directions in love, work, and worldviews and a new level of social freedom and responsibility is experienced. The period of emerging adulthood is filled with both opportunities and challenges. Explorations of love, work, and worldviews are fraught with the possibility of romantic rejection, failure to find work that is satisfying and meaningful, and disillusionment with the world’s inequities and realities [1]. Developmental theory suggests that these “younger adults” have less social control and exercise higher levels of impulsivity than their older counterparts.

Effect of Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae (Afa) on Endogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proliferation in African Adult Donkeys (Equus africanus) during Fracture HEALING (NTAB) - Juniper Publishers

Stem enhance is a patented blend of migratose® and mobilin™-proprietary natural concentrations of an edible aquatic botanical known as Aphanizomenon Flos Aquae (AFA) [1,2]. Aphanizomenon Flos Aquae (AFA) has been growing in a unique, pristine environment in the North Western United States of America for long; it has been safely consumed for over three decades [3,4]. Stem enhance is the world’s first ever natural stem cell enhancer, the only natural supplement in the world proven to support the natural release of one’s adult stem cells from ones bone marrow [5,6]. Two capsules of stem enhance (2.5mg/ kg) support an average 25% increase in the natural release of adult stem cell [7,8] this is equivalent to 3 to 4 million stem cells in circulation. Stem cells are defined as cells with the unique ability to self replicate into various cell types of the body [9]. Generally speaking, there are two types of stem cells. Embryonic stem cells and Adult stem cells, [10]. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are extracted within 5-10 days from an embryo called blastula [11,12]. Once isolated ESC can be grown in-vitro and led to differentiate into various type of tissue cell (such as heart cells, nervous cells, kidney cells) [13] after which they are injected in specific tissues in order to regenerate the tissue [14].

Handwriting as a means of Cultural Identity(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

Handwriting as a means of Cultural Identity by Anup Kumar Kapoor in JFSCI - Juniper Publishers The uniqueness of handwriting ...