Thursday, December 13, 2018

Fluid Shear Stress Inhibits Differentiation of Growth Plate Chondrocytes, Partially Via Integrin Beta 1



Authored by Barbara D Boyan

Mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear stress contribute to cartilage homeostasis and serve as important parameters for tissue engineering bioreactors. While mechanical forces on articular chondrocytes are widely investigated, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of fluid shear stress on growth plate cartilage cells. Rat costochondral resting zone chondrocytes (RC) and chondrogenic ATDC5 cells were subjected to 0, 2, 3.5, 5, or 6.5 dynes/cm2 fluid shear stress in a cone-plate viscometer device for 24 hours, and thenwereharvested immediately or after an additional static culture period. Shear stress exposure decreased [35S]-sulfate and [3H]-thymidine incorporation, but these were partially or fully recovered to control levels following a 24-hour, post-shear static culture across shear treatments. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also dose-dependently lowered by shear at this interval.

Corn Yield as Altered by Using On-Farm Seed Priming, Different Nitrogen Levels and Soil Moisture Regimes


Authored by Kamil Sardar

The experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, of The University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2013 to study the effect of seed priming, nitrogen (N) levels and soil moisture regimes on the yield and yield components of maize. Two separate experiments were conducted in RCB design, one under high moisture condition other under low moisture condition. Treatment combination of seed priming and N levels were kept in. Sub plots while moisture in main plots. Nitrogen was applied at (0, 75, 150kg N ha-1) in three split doses. Seed priming was consisted of dry seed, water soaked and seed primed in 0.2% Phosphorus (P) solution. Days to emergence and Emergence m-2 of maize were significantly affected by moisture and seed priming while N effect was not significant. Low moisture plots resulted in higher days to emergence as compared to high moisture plots. Higher days to emergence were recorded for dry seed as compared to P primed seed and water soaked seed.

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

A Case Report and Review of the Literature



Authored by Rosario Fernandez Salmerón

Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare paraneoplasic neurological syndrome (PNS) that may precedes the development of malignancies. It´s an uncommon inflammatory myophaty with characteristic cutaneous manifestations. The association between DM and cancer has long been recognized but is becoming more clearly delineated. Several studies have documented an increased rate of malignant disease associated with DM over that observed in the general population. The incidence of ovarian cancer developing in the setting of DM was reported to be as high as 13.3 % in one series.

Monday, December 10, 2018

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Markers



Authored by Vasiliki E Kalodimou

In the field of regenerative medicine, basic research and preclinical studies have been conducted to overcome clinical shortcomings with the use of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and adipose stem cells. They are present in adult tissues, including bone marrow, umbilical cord, umbilical cord blood and adipose tissue [1]. For many years, bone marrow-derived stem cells were the primary source of stem cells for tissue engineering applications. Russian-born Alexander A. Maximow in 1924 used extensive histological findings to identify a kind of spherical precursor cell in the mesenchyme, which can grow and differentiate into Different cell types. In late 1960’s the scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till reveal for the first time the clonal nature of bone marrow cells.

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

Embryo Transfer in Upper Uterine Cavity versus Mid-Uterine Cavity in Cases of Previous Failed Implantation

Authored by Abdel-Rahman Anbar

The aim of this work is to compare site of embryo transfer in mid-uterine cavity versus site of embryo transfer in upper uterine cavity in cases of previous failed implantation following ICSI treatment protocol. A prospective study. Setting: private IVF center (walad and bent). Patients and methods: Sixty two infertile women undergoing ICSI, were recruited from Assisted Reproductive Technology Unit (ART hospital department), during the period between December 2015 to October 2017.

Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Semelil on Testicular Germ Cells in Streptozotocin-lnduced Chronic Diabetic Rats


Authored by Maryam Anjomshoa

It is well known that diabetes is associated with impairment of testicular function. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Semilil, an herbal medicine with angiogenic action, on testicular germ cell apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic diabetic rats. Adult Male sprague dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) diabetic group, (2) Semilil-treated diabetic group, (3) insulin- treated diabetic group, (4) Semilil plus insulin-treated diabetic group, and (5) control group. Semilil was administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 13mg/kg for 49 days. Apoptosis in testicular germ cells was determined by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Apoptosis indices in testicular germ cells of animals were computed using the stereologic method.

Nongenomic Effect of T3 on the Na, K-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast from Human Term Placenta


Authored by Fulgencio Proverbio

Several ion transport enzymes are positively regulated by genomic mechanisms, through the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. However, there is evidence indicating that these hormones might also exert non genomic effects on different transporting enzymes. A normal activity of the Na, K-ATPase of  syncytiotrophoblast is essential for ion homeostasis in this tissue, as well as for the growth and development of the fetus. In the current work it was studied the non genomic effect of thyroid hormones on the Na, K-ATPase activity of syncytiotrophoblast. The study was carried-out by incubating human term placental explants in the absence and presence of 10nMT3or 350nMT4 and then isolating the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and assaying them for Na, K-ATPase activity. The enzyme activity was also assayed for freshly prepared plasma membranes in the presence of (0-15)nMT3 or (0-500)nMT4.

Changing Attitudes towards Assisted Reproduction and IVF

Authored by Kelly Oliver

If not so long ago pregnancy was something to be hidden, a private matter that required modesty in dress and behavior, now with sexy pregnant bodies and protruding baby bumps on the covers of tabloids every week, a new stigma is attached to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and what goes on at fertility clinics, which is often showed in secrets. If a few decades ago a woman's pregnant body was considered obscene insofar as it was associated with sex—it was proof that she had sex--today the disconnect between sex and pregnancy made possible by new reproductive technologies appears as the new obscenity.

Semenoma Originated from an Ectopic Testis

Authored by Otheman Fahs

The authors report an observation of a meta static seminoma on an ectopic testicle in a 23 years old patient and discuss the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of this entity. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult due to the diversity of clinical symptoms, the use of imaging, biological markers and percutaneous biopsyis essential to make the diagnosis. The anatomopathology and therapeutic aspects are similar to the testis in normal situations. Early diagnosis of these tumors involves the lowering of the cryptorchid testicles, because even if this lowering does not prevent the setumors, it allows better monitoring.

Monday, November 26, 2018

Be Wary of Using Poisson Regression to Estimate Risk and Relative Risk


Authored By  Leigh Blizzard
 
Fitting a log binomial model to binary outcome data makes it possible to estimate risk and relative risk for follow-up data, and prevalence and prevalence ratios for cross-sectional data. However, the fitting algorithm may fail to converge when the maximum likelihood solution is on the boundary of the allowable parameter space. Some authorities recommend switching to Poisson regression with robust standard errors to approximate the coefficients of the log binomial model in those circumstances. This solves the problem of non-convergence, but results in errors in the coefficient estimates that may be substantial particularly when the maximum fitted value is large. The paradox is that the circumstances in which the modified Poisson approach is needed to overcome estimation problems are the same circumstances when the error in using it is greatest. We recommend that practitioners should be wary of using modified Poisson regression to approximate risk and relative risk.
 

 

On Quantum 3-Pass Protocol


Authored By Ahmed E
 
Some proposed 3-pass protocols in quantum cryptography assumes that the qbits are 2-component. Here we propose a protocol without this assumption

 

Confidence Intervals for the Relative Risk


Authored by Michail Tsagris
 
Confidence interval for the ratio of two independent binomial proportions is an important measure, especially in medicine. The relative risk is such an example where accurate interval estimation is crucial. In this work we compare 4 different methods for the construction of such intervals. Simulation studies using many combinations of the sample sizes and of the true proportions reveal interesting conclusions as to the suitability of either method.
 

 

Relationship of Gelatynase B Enzyme Activity and Coronary Artery Disease


Authored by Aysegul Bayramoglu

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the pathology underlying the majority of coronary artery disease (CAD). We planned to investigate the association of enzyme activities of gelatinase B (or matrix metalloproteinase-9) in CAD patients. For this reason,102 patients with CAD and 99 control group recruited in this study. Serum gelatinase B enzyme level determinated from these peripheral blood samples by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The results were evaluated by using statistical analyses. The level of gelatinase B increased in patients according to control group. As a result of our study, serum gelatinase B level was associated with CAD and could be used as a clinical marker.

To read more.... Fulltext in Biostatistics and Biometrics Open Access Journal in Juniper publishers
 

 

Book Review ‘Rahsia Dan Imej Wanita’ (Malay Version)
 
Authored By Uqbah Iqbal
Written by Ghafar Nin and Merina Haji Ibrahim, this book states that a healthy body is a requirement for active women.The creators of the comet have long been utilizing natural plants for body care. 

 

Monday, October 15, 2018

Handwriting as a means of Cultural Identity(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers





The uniqueness of handwriting is based on the discriminating elements of writing which are the clear manifestations of writing habits. These writing habits are greatly influenced and shaped by the culture and environment of a writer as handwriting is an acquired skill and environment is the matrix from which this art is acquired and cultivated [1]. The development of handwriting is complex which in part is culture dependent, and culture differs with locales and undergoes constant changes. Handwriting is a fine motor skill and teachings of the motor preliminaries (such as regularity and neatness, the introduction of cultural biases such as slant, counter clockwise rotations, left to right transport, posture and grasp) of writing varies from culture to culture. It can also be defined as a culture-bound activity, where many aspects of a language are greatly influenced by the culture of an individual. Writing is a potent and conventional system of symbols, marks and signs that encodes the utterances of a language. Cultural differences in verbal expression lead to distinctive pattern of native languages. Cheng et al. [2] investigated the impact of native language writing system on English handwriting and found the uniqueness in English handwriting characteristics peculiar to the ethnic origin of the writers.



Study on Some Improvised Revolvers(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers







There are different types of small firearms including the revolver which is a rifled handgun having a revolving cylinder with chamber for loading cartridges. Revolvers of different calibers are available varying from 3mm to about 15 mm. These small firearms are usually used by police personnel/civilians for self-defense or the defense of others; and military personnel during combat. Considering the revolver's various advantages, such firearms are clandestinely manufactured by skilled gunsmith in various locations in India and smuggled out of the country by weapons traffickers for sale and global distribution. As such, gun control has become difficult. Out of total gun-violence cases received in the laboratory for last ten years, it is seen, 2% of the total (1635 number) cases are contributed by improvised revolvers. Such indigenous firearms are meticulously designed to fire different factory made ammunition.

Sudden Unexpected Death from Extraventricular Neurocytoma. A Case Report and Review of the Literature(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers






Central neurocytomas (CNs) are benign tumors which usually arise from the lateral ventricles [1,2]. Extra ventricular neurocytomas (EVNs) refer to tumors with similar or identical biological and histopathological characteristics to CNs, but which arise from extra ventricular parenchymal tissue [2]. EVNs may occur at any age, but are usually seen in the third decade of life without sex preference [3]. Presenting symptoms obviously vary depending on the location of the tumor [4]. Histo pathologically, EVNs display a wide spectrum in morphology, such as the growth of monotonous neurocytes either in sheets, clusters, ribbons or rosettes, and neuropils dispersed in broad zones and contain a greater number of ganglion or ganglioid cells and astrocytes than CNs [5]. Furthermore, EVNs are often misdiagnosed as oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas or oligodendroglial tumors with neurocytic differentiation [6]. Immuno histo chemically, synaptophysin expression is positive and has been recognized as the most reliable diagnostic marker for identifying neuronal differentiation in brain neoplasia [7], and may thus play a vital role in the diagnosis of EVN tumors. Below we describe a rare case of sudden and unexpected death due to a clinically undiagnosed extra ventricular neurocytoma located on the midbrain.



New Record of Sarcophaga ruficornis, Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Iran, A Flesh Fly Species of Medical and Forensic Importance(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers




New Record of Sarcophaga ruficornis, Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Iran, A Flesh Fly Species of Medical and Forensic Importance by Mohammad Assareh in JFSCI - Juniper Publishers


Forensic entomology is the study of cadaveric insect and other arthropods to medico-legal subjects in the judicial system [1]. The study of diptera is imperative in the forensic entomology field. This can be beneficial in determining post-mortem interval (PMI) and also obtain information about the site of death [2]. Insects have a specific pattern to occurrence the bodies, as diptera are mostly found in the early times of body decomposition [3]. Two main groups of insects are mostly attracted to corpse and provide valuable evidence in criminal investigation; the flies and the beetles [1]. The application of the entomological technique to determine the time of death consists of two main measures; the estimate based on the age of the oldest maggots that have developed on the body and estimate based on the development patterns [4].
The order dipteral comprises a number of forensically important families, viz. Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Piophilidae, and Fanniidae [5]. Sarcophagidae are a large family with approximately 2510 identified species. They are frequent in warm climates. Three subfamilies have been identified: Miltogramminae, Sarcophaginae and Paramacronychiinae. Sarcophaginae contains species that are important in medical entomology field [6]. Sarcophaginae larvae feed on excrements and carrions [1]

The Innocent v The Fickle Few': How Jurors Understand Random-Match-Probabilities and Judges' Directions when Reasoning about DNA and Refuting Evidence(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers






DNA evidence is one of the most significant modern advances in the search for truth since the cross examination, but its format as a random-match-probability makes it difficult for people to assign an appropriate probative value [1]. While Frequentist theories propose that the presentation of the match as a frequency rather than a probability facilitates more accurate assessment [2], Exemplar-Cueing Theory predicts that the subjective weight assigned may be affected by the frequency or probability format, and how easily examples of the event, i.e., 'exemplars', are generated from linguistic cues that frame the match in light of further evidence [3]. This paper presents two juror research studies to examine the difficulties that jurors have in assigning appropriate probative value to DNA evidence when contradictory evidence is presented.
Study 1 showed that refuting evidence significantly reduced guilt judgments when exemplars were linguistically cued, even when the probability match and the refuting evidence had the same objective probative value. Moreover, qualitative reason for judgment responses revealed that interpreting refuting evidence was found to be complex and not necessarily reductive; refutation was found indicative of innocence or guilt depending on whether exemplars have been cued or not.

The Opioid Epidemic - A Generation in Crisis (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers



On March 29, 2017 President Donald Trump tapped Governor Chris Christie of New Jersey to lead a commission fighting the opioid addiction crisis. Not a bad choice, as political appointments go. Christie’s heartfelt words about addiction went viral in 2015 during the presidential campaign and won him praise. In his last year as governor, Christie has pursued enlightened policies to help stem the tide of opioid and other drug addiction in New Jersey. He has signed legislation limiting first-time narcotic prescriptions to five days’ worth of opioids, and requiring health insurers to cover at least a minimum of six months of substance abuse treatment.


Fluid Shear Stress Inhibits Differentiation of Growth Plate Chondrocytes, Partially Via Integrin Beta 1 Authored by  Barbara D Boy...