Saturday, September 29, 2018

Facing Challenges on Demand Forecasting: Dealing With Short Data in the Petrochemical Industry- Juniper Publishers

This article aims to verify how a fuels distributor industry operates and plans forecast demand for gasoline and diesel, which are responsible for most of the operating losses. Through a case study, the findings suggest that the company has a shortage in this process, considering that does not use mathematical models and methods or specific systems in the industry to make decisions, based only on the opinion and advice of managers. The research results has shown that the application of known techniques of forecasting can bring some advantage to the organization, understanding that only knowledge and professional experience are factors that should not be worked out in a standardized manner. Its association with mathematical models and methods can improve the company's result.

Go ahead for Technology (ARTOAJ) - Juniper Publishers

It’s my pleasure to see the Journal for agricultural research & technology to begin scientific life in our Journal. Editorial Board hopes to commitment to scientific rules of evaluating the scientific research by group of in different researcher belonging to college and research center all over the world.

Bioequivalence & Bioavailability; Some Perspectives (MABB) - Juniper Publishers

Bioequivalence & Bioavailability; Some Perspectives in Juniper in Modern Applications of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

The term “bioequivalence” refers to pharmaceutically equivalent products where the extent of bioavailability of the actives are not significantly (in the statistical sense) different under scientific conditions usually following the rules of scientific sampling. As a student of the famous W.E. Deming (1900-1993) these words are common knowledge to people and researchers like me. 

Broad Working Approaches in Yoga and Physiotherapy (JYP) - Juniper Publishers


Broad Working Approaches in Yoga and Physiotherapy in Juniper in Journal of Yoga and Physiotherapy

It is heartening to note that Juniper Publishers have launched the publication of the 'Journal of Yoga and Physiotherapy' to cover and contribute in two more health related areas. Physiotherapy is an offshoot of modern (western) medical sciences while Yoga is one of the six orthodox systems of perceptions belonging to the ancient Indian culture and civilization.

Diabesity (CRDOJ) - Juniper Publishers

My gift to you is today Thoughtful poems of the day. Try reading many times Before the night ends the day.

Friday, September 28, 2018

Hypothesis Nature has provided the two Subsets required for Translational Lung Cancer Research (IJCSMB) - Juniper Publishers

Hypothesis Nature has provided the two Subsets required for Translational Lung Cancer Research in Juniper in International Journal of Cell Science & Molecular Biology

Regarding translational research on lung cancer, a recent report came from China. In the present paper from Nigeria, necrosis was noted to occur when cancer cells being transported within the thoracic duct were comingled with red cells. It was hypothesized that the retrieval of such rich natural pabulum in addition to the replication of it in translational laboratories will conduce to cancer cure. 

Effect of Nickel Chloride on the Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus Mungol (JOJS) - Juniper Publishers

Effect of Nickel Chloride on the Growth and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus Mungol in Juniper in JOJ Sciences

The effect of heavy metal nickel chloride on germination, growth and biochemical parameters of Phaseolusmungo L. was studied. Application of various concentrations from 3mM to 15mM decreased the percentage of growth, pigment content and increased the content of amino acid and proline. It was found to be decreased when compared to the respective control grown with nutrient medium. The present study demonstrated that the heavy metal nickel had adversely affected the growth and biochemical parameters of the plant Phaseolusmungo L. 

There is Plenty of Time to Grow Up, But, Let a Child be a Child (PBSIJ) - Juniper Publishers

There is Plenty of Time to Grow Up, But, Let a Child be a Child in Juniper in Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal

As a professional and a mother, I remember that the development of an infant through early childhood moves so quickly after the time of birth. One thing for certain is that “childhood” should be one reflected in joy, exploration, assimilation of knowledge through experiences, joy, and happiness. There is no greater pleasure than hearing and seeing a happy child laugh, grow, and showing joy. 

Beware of Over-Enthusiasm for CT Scans! (OAJS) - Juniper Publishers

Beware of Over-Enthusiasm for CT Scans! in Juniper in Open Access Journal of Surgery 

The problem of over use of CT scans has become an epidemic in our present society and it is going to worsen in coming years if appropriate! steps are not taken now. This has become a complex issue with interplay of many factors like doctor factors, patient and public factors, action/inaction of monitoring bodies and company driven. The issue simply is non-judicious use of CT scans. There is no doubt about CT scans being one of the most useful tools in diagnostic radiology. Unfortunately, doctors are now advising CT scans just at the drop of hat and history and clinical examination have taken not only a back seat but not even considered wisely in many cases. The aim of this editorial is to spread awareness among doctors about the wise use of CT scans or at least to avoid over-enthusiasm about it highlighting radiation, contrast induced nephropathy (CIN), hypersensitivity to contrast mediums and cost factor. 

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Foe for the Thyroid? (JETR) - Juniper Publishers

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Foe for the Thyroid? in Juniper in Journal of Endocrinology and Thyroid Research

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are agents that inhibit multiple receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in tumour growth, neoangiogenesis and metastatic progression of cancer. The simultaneous inhibition of these targets leads to both reduced tumor vascularization and increased cancer cell death, and ultimately tumor shrinkage. Several multi target TKIs are approved and have been associated with thyroid dysfunction [1]. Although anticancer treatment with the TKIs frequently causes thyroid dysfunction, the underlying mechanism implicated along with related clinical features have not been fully elucidated until today. 

Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of Tropomyosins from the Ordinary and Hybrid Tilapia (OFOAJ) - Juniper Publishers

Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of Tropomyosins from the Ordinary and Hybrid Tilapia in Juniper in Oceanography & Fisheries Open Access Journal 

Tilapia is a very common aquaculture species in Taiwan and both the so-called freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and seawater tilapia (O. mossambica) are available. In order to characterize muscle tropomyosin from these tilapia and hybrid ones (O. mossambica × O. niloticus ), the biochemical properties of tropomyosin among these tilapia species were analysed. The nucleotide sequences of tropomyosin genes were determined by cDNA cloning, and the amino acid sequences were deduced. Fast skeletal muscle tropomyosins were isolated by the combination of isoelectric point precipitation and salting out with ammonium sulfate. The thermodynamic properties of the purified tropomyosins were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry. The results showed that those tropomyosins were identical to each other including the deduced amino acid sequence, thermodynamic patterns as measured by DSC and CD, except the partial differences in the nucleotide sequence, namely, at 99th (A/G), 183rd (T/C) and 846th (T/C) positions in the open reading frame. 

Entwistle’s Epistemology: Job Coaching for Meaning (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers

Entwistle suggests four fundamental approaches to learning: deep, strategic, surface, and apathetic learning. These approaches to learning represent a continuum of learning from the more comprehensive and in-depth approach to a more superficial, rote memorization approach to learning. These strategies vary in terms of the depth of learning that takes place-deep learning being the most integrated learning and apathetic involving only a “bits-and-pieces” approach to internalizing information. Competence in using a particular approach is context dependent: “an approach, strictly speaking, can only be applied with any confidence to a particular teaching-learning environment, as the approach is the result of an interaction between the student and that context” (2000, p.4) [3].

Pressure Plate Fixation according to Brunner & Weber for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Non-Union of the Femur. A Theoretical -Biomechanical Analysis (NTAB) - Juniper Publishers

Most femoral fractures heal well with appropriate treatment. Failure of a fracture to heal is often multifactorial [14]. Fractures in the metaphyseal-diaphyseal transition zone that are provoked by the dissipation of high energy are notorious for their complications; such as infections, non-union, mal- union [5-9]. Delayed union implies slow healing, longer than is reasonably expected for a given fracture. Non-union occurs when a fracture has ceased to show any evidence of healing, as indicated by persistent fracture lines, sclerosis at the fragment ends and hypertrophic or absent callus. ‘Wave’ plate fixation is a form of bridging plate fixation which also tries to enhance the ‘tension band'effect by increasing the offset of an appropriately contoured plate from the loading axis of the femur [2,10].

In a previous study the authors reported promising results [11] on eight cases of long standing (more than three years) non-union of the femur treated with the compression "wave " plate according to Weber [12] and Brunner [13]. In this study we try to substantiate the alleged benefit of using an autologous iliac strut graft beneath the contoured segment of the plate in decreasing the load on the plate.

Turkey and Violence in the Countryside(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

In rural Turkey it is mostly young people who indulge in violence and crime since young individuals are hot tempered, inexperienced and uncalculative in their dealings with other young people. Shaw [1] asserts that Turkey is an agricultural country where people mostly live in villages under simple conditions. The inmates in prisons reflect this fact. The convict is usually a villager between the ages of 22-39 and the crime committed is due to revenge, jealousy or land dispute, he relates. Indeed, on the countryside even crimes are of rural nature. Armed robbery, a peculiarity of urban centers is never encountered for instance. Instead offences in accordance with rural life do occur from time to time. Some cultural grounds and reasons appear to back up certain possibilities of violence. On Black Sea, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia regions village boys are taught how to handle guns. Turks, as a war-waging nation, do possess a long tradition of arms. As the expression goes "my horse, my woman and my weapon are my most precious items". Our people used to keep arms against bandits. Arms symbolize courage as in the saying "the sign of a landlord is his generosity; the sign of a brave man is his marksmanship

The "Awful" Inevitable Fact for the Typical Policeman: Time to Retire!(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

Retirement is actually a stage of life worth of living. Achieving retirement represents peace and fulfillment, in a sense. People without a pension lead tragic lives and they admire the regular retirement pays of others. Moreover; retirement involves attainment of a certain point in one's life span, related to age, and accordingly, it should be associated with happiness. Nevertheless; what one loses through retirement is also an undeniable fact of life. For certain professions those losses overweigh the gains in a more conspicuous manner. Police job probably comes at the top of such professions. On various grounds; the retirement of a cop is substantially more difficult to endure. Even the approach of the determined date embitters life considerably, in accordance with the Turkish proverb: The mentioning of certain situations is even worse than their real happenings.

Parents with Psychosis: Impact on Parenting & Parent-Child Relationship- A Systematic Review (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers

Psychosisis a mental state that is defined as “A severe mental illness, derangement, or disorder involving a loss of contact with reality, frequently with hallucinations, delusions, or altered thought processes, with or without a known organic origin.’’ [1-4]. A psychotic experience or episode is diagnosed when one or more of the following symptoms is present: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence), grossly disorganized or abnormal motorbehaviour (including catatonia) and negative symptoms [1]. Thus, among all, the most common symptoms of psychosis are delusions and hallucinations [1-4].“Psychosis is a term used to cover a range of mental illnesses where psychotic symptoms typically occur.’’ [2]. The primary disorders comprise schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorders, schizophreniform disorder and brief psychotic disorder. On the other hand, it can be attributable to more general mental health conditions, personality disorders, psychoactive substance or mood disorder for instance major depression or bipolar disorder [2-4]. Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic disorder and it occurs at the same rates across women and men. Thus, as it’s assumed that women and men are affected by psychosis to the same extent, the same holds true for parents (either mothers or fathers).

Is Human Trafficking an Issue in America's Backyards?(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

Hello, my name is Barry Goodson and I serve as a Professor of Criminal Justice with Columbia Southern University. My experience ranges from serving with a Special Ops group known as the CAP Marines during the Vietnam War to service in law enforcement as a member of the CAC Investigation Task Force, which involved many cases concerning local human trafficking, which is typically heralded as a crime that only happens overseas. My purpose for this article is to further awareness of this crime in our very backyards. One of the more memorable cases I worked involved a 13-year-old girl, who lived in the northern part of our county. Her parents were far from wealthy, dictating both parents work, leaving the child home alone many hours of each day. Sound familiar? According to E.J. Dionne, Jr. of the Washington Post [1], "most families these days cannot afford to have one parent stay home with the kids". This was the case with this family. Additionally, as our children reach the age of puberty, which may be one of the most emotional and more vulnerable stages in life, we, as parents, seem to believe that our children can automatically assume responsibility for their lives and that they will make the right decisions in any given situation, which is a task that remains formidable for most adults.

Review of Ameliorative Potentials of Plant-Derived Phytochemicals against Arthritics (NTAB) - Juniper Publishers

Arthritis is the inflammation in the joints which leads problem in moving around. It can lead to stiffness, pain, swelling and redness in the joints. There are diverse types of arthritis such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, infectious arthritis, gout and psoriatic arthritis. Generally, it is considered as a part of aging posed disease however it occur to others also. The major reasons for the incidence of this disease were injury, autoimmune i.e., immune system starts attacking its own cells and tissues, external infection and excess uric acid accumulation.

Herbals are employed for the treatment of many ailments from historical periods and herbal drugs use is as old as mankind. Herbal drugs are synthesized from ancient system of medicine by the traditional practitioners. Nowadays, pharmacologists show much interest in those novel drugs derived from herbals because of their safety and less expensive. Nature has empowered with wealth of herbals and is widely distributed all over the world as source of therapeutic drugs for the prevention and cure of many diseases. According to WHO, world’s 80% population use plant based drugs for their primary health needs. The medicinally important parts of these herbals are phytochemical constituents that produce a desired physiological reaction on the body and there by curative action.

Hedonic/Utilitarian Cool Attitudes: A Comparison of Young Female and Male Consumers (CTFTTE) - Juniper Publishers

Hedonic/Utilitarian Cool Attitudes: A Comparison of Young Female and Male Consumers in Juniper in Current Trends in Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering

Young consumers are considered fashion innovators because they tend to accept, adopt, and use new products more frequently than any other consumer group. Young consumers are appealing to commercial apparel marketers because their purchasing power has increased over the years and their buying behavior can influence the acceptance or rejection/avoidance of new products within a few months after they are introduced to the marketplace [1]. Apparel marketers use the concept of cool as a marketing tool to stimulate young consumers to purchase. A cool lifestyle reflects consumers’ desire for novelty.

Should Nano-particles Be Used to Cross Blood Brain Barrier to Deliver Drugs to Neurodegenerative Disease? (NAPDD) - Juniper Publishers

Should Nano-particles Be Used to Cross Blood Brain Barrier to Deliver Drugs to Neurodegenerative Disease? in Juniper in Novel Approaches in Drug Designing & Development

Treating diseases of central nervous system by delivering therapeutic agents faces a big problem of crossing blood brain barrier. For combating this challenge various types of nano particles such as polymeric nano particles, nano metals, carbon quantum dots are being used with reasonable success in crossing the BBB and enhancing the drug efficacy. However, certain aftermath negative impact of use of nanotechnology for drug delivery to brain has not been considered. In this opinion/short-communication attention has been paid to the need of considering various aspects that may cause damage to brain.

Polymer Science, From Academic to All (AJOP) - Juniper Publishers

Polymer Science, From Academic to All in Juniper in Academic Journal of Polymer Science

For over a century, polymer science has experienced many important developments, and many achievements have been made on the basis of theoretical and empirical research. Polymers have unique properties such as high strength, toughness and elasticity due to their intermolecular behavior
causing by the large molecular weight and long molecular chain, which are very different from those of small molecules. Polymer compounds are ubiquitous in nature, including the protein and cellulose that make up the organism, nucleic acids that carrying biological genetic information, and raw materials of clothes such as cotton, wool and silk. On the other hand, synthetic polymers play an important role in polymer science.

Thursday, September 27, 2018

Indication-Specific Approach to Filler Injections (JOJDC) - Juniper Publishers

Indication-Specific Approach to Filler Injections in Juniper in Juniper Online Journal of Dermatology & Cosmetics

Facial aging is a complex process resulting in appearance of wrinkles and folds as well as sagging and volume loss. This article does outline a science-based, indication-specific therapeutic concept for filler injections to the aging ace.

Role of Toll like Receptor(s) in Tumor Biology (JTMP) - Juniper Publishers

Role of Toll like Receptor(s) in Tumor Biology in Juniper in Journal of Tumor Medicine & Prevention 

Toll like receptors belong to a family of specialized immune receptors that highly conserved and specific for their ligands. TLR signaling can identify specific pathogen and can induce expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, initiate opsonization and phagocytosis, elicit reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production, activate the complement pathway etc. to get rid of it. Apart from its unquestionable role in pathogen recognition and neutralization, TLRs can also identify altered self-proteins including those expressed by transformed cell. Agonists of toll like receptors, both of natural or synthetic origin have been exploited for their ability to elicit and/or potentiate anticancer response alone or when combined with available treatment regimes. TLR agonist mediated activation of immune cells (lymphocytes, leukocytes etc.) and production of inflammatory mediators leads to the generation of cellular (adaptive) immune responses that hold promising applications
against cancer progression. 

Benign Ovarian Teratomas Discovered at Cesarean Section in a Nigerian Ethnic Group: Case Report (JGWH) - Juniper Publishers

Benign Ovarian Teratomas Discovered at Cesarean Section in a Nigerian Ethnic Group: Case Report in Juniper in Journal of Gynecology and Women’s Health

Objective: To review cases of benign ovarian teratoma removed incidentally at cesarean section.

Materials and Methods: Specimens submitted for histopathology at a Central Reference Laboratory serving the Igbo ethnic group in Nigeria are studied.

Results: Much as this is reportedly rare, the Nigerian experience of ovarian teratoma is that it is not uncommon at cesarean sections.

Conclusion: Ovarian specimens excised at cesarean sections are routinely submitted for histology. This is not the same practice in developing countries. However, those received personally in this developing community throw interesting light on the epidemiology of this important disease.

Management of A Chyluria: About A Case and Review of The Literature- Juniper Publishers

Management of A Chyluria: About A Case and Review of The Literature by Nabil Jakhlal in Juniper Publishers in Global Journal of Reproductive Medicine

Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This condition, if left untreated, leads to significant morbidity. We present a case of bilateral chyluria treated by transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrolysis and discuss at the same time the epidemiological, pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of chyluria.

Ferroelectrics for Biomedical Applications - Juniper Publishers

Ferroelectrics for Biomedical Applications by Deyang Chen in Juniper Publishers in Global Journal of Nanomedicine 

Ferroelectric materials, one of the current research focus with a number of fascinating properties such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectricity, has extensive application value in biomedical systems. Here we review the biomedical applications of ferroelectric materials, including ferroelectric ceramics, ferroelectric thin films, and ferroelectric polymers. Some unresolved problems are summarized and the future directions of applications in biomedicine are prospected as well.

Posterolateral Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy with Partial Pediculotomy for the L1-L2 High-Grade Downward Migrated Disc Herniation- Juniper Publishers

Posterolateral Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy with Partial Pediculotomy for the L1-L2 High-Grade Downward Migrated Disc Herniation by Yoshihiro Kitahama in Juniper Publishers in Journal of Head Neck & Spine Surgery

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) is one of the most useful minimally invasive surgical techniques for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, high-grade migrated disc is difficult to treat with only the standard posterolateral approach (posterolateral PED, PLPED).

Purpose: To overcome this difficulty, we combined the pediculotomy with PLPED for the treatment of high-grade migrated LDH. The pediculotomy is the recent technic for PED that has been explored with development of high-speed drill.

Case report: A 72-year-old man had a 6-month history of left L2 radiculopathy. His general state was too poor to perform general anesthesia and invasive surgery. The left L1-L2 downward migrated fragment compressed his L2 nerve root axial portion on magnetic resonance imaging. PLPED with partial pediculotomy was used for complete total removal, which cured his symptoms without any complications. Thirty minutes after fragmentectomy, we needed to control 100-ml bleeding from the anterior epidural venous plexus (AEVP).

Discussion: Upper-level migrated large lumbar disc fragments often require facetectomy with some fusion in conventional microscopic surgery. This case was too complicated for indicating the conventional technique. Only the flexible bipolar device helps control hemostasis in the PED system, but some bleeding cannot be controlled easily.

Conclusion: PLPED with partial pediculotomy was useful for a migrated fragment in patients with poor general conditions. Although the PED system requires a new device to control the bleeding from the AEVP.

Three-Dimensional Identification of Eagle’s Syndrome- A Case Report (GJO) - Juniper Publishers

The case in question is a 35-year-old man, with a For Peer Review history of bilateral laterocervical pain episodes radiating to the orbital region for over 3 years. He had no history of surgery or trauma. A careful clinical examination radiographs and 3D computed tomography scan revealed 47mm long bilateral styloid processes. In 1937 Eagle documented cases in which elongation of the styloid process (over 25 mm), appeared to be the cause of pharyngeal and cervical pain. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to Eagle’s syndrome have been proposed, but all revolve around mechanical compression of the styloid processes on adjacent structures resulting in direct or referred pain.

Mindfulness in Everyday Life (GJARM) - Juniper Publishers

The word “Mindfulness” comes from the Buddhist Philosophy which is a 2500 year-old tradition. Mindfulness means focusing on your present and observing our thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations from a distance without analyzing whether they are good or bad. It’s one of the best antidotes for the stressors of modern times. In our busy world, we plan our day while listening to music, commuting to work and while doing many a random task. But in this daily hustle and bustle of our fast moving life we often find ourselves losing our connection with the present moment, on what we’re doing and how we’re feeling [1,2].

Practicing mindfulness not only improves mental and physical health but also involves and improves concentration and acceptance i.e., concentrating on our thoughts and sensations, and accepting those thoughts and sensation without any judgment. At times we may face situations when we may feel a bit down, may be at times upset about what someone must have said to us, or perhaps we get anxious about a meeting. In such situations we often find that our thoughts keep running and are out of control; and we may even worry a bit if we are suffering from a mental illness or pain.

Cartilage Tissue Engineering-A Novel Biomaterial for Cartilage Repair Generated by Self- Assembly: Creation of a Self-Organized Articular Cartilage-like Tissue (NTAB) - Juniper Publishers

For the treatment of advanced joint destruction and degeneration, reconstruction of joints using new technologies such as tissue engineering are now attracting attention. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have already been so well devised that they have sufficiently high affinity to the bone and enough rigidity similar to bone to be usable for the treatment of bone defects [1]. Since bone itself has superb ability of remodeling, grafted bone is replaced by the host bone tissue through self-organization over a period of several weeks to months. In contrast, materials suitable for cartilage repair still remain to be created which have perfectly cartilage-specific tissue qualities represented by properties of high elasticity and high lubrication [2,3].

Intoxicated Perpetrators of Sexual Assault & Rape Know What They are Doing Despite Intoxication: What the Literature Has to Say(JFSCI) - Juniper Publishers

Far too many people claim that they did not know what they were doing when confronted about antisocial or illegal behavior they engaged in when intoxicated. Yet somehow they seem to recall most if not all pleasant or fUn behavior when intoxicated. People tell their stories of how much fUn they had when intoxicated, recalling most of the details of their drunken escapades. The literature suggests that people may not recall events that commonly occur and therefore some of their drunken escapades may not be recalled in full because they are routine occurrences. I postulate that events that are pleasant for an individual are likely stored in memory stronger than other events and therefore more likely to be recalled. Remember that sex related offenses and behavior an individual engages in are good or positive events for that person- they like what they are doing. Sex related offenses involve specific behavior that requires thinking (e.g., to counter victim resistance, to engage in specific sexual or other behavior on the victim, and to remove any evidence, and to escape the situation). Even with an unconscious victim, the perpetrator has to make contact without others seeing, remove any clothing, deal with any victim resistance should the victim awake, and escape without detection. I believe that sex offenders who engage in sex offenses while intoxicated have a memory of their offense and know what they are doing at the time they are doing it, despite claiming that they either

Treason, Terrorism and United States Citizens: Sanctioned Assassinations?(JFSCI) - JUniper Publishers

Radical Islamists have been at war with the U.S. since the 1980s however, the American public didn’t begin to take the threat seriously until September 11th, 2001 [1]. This resulted in the passage of a number of laws that bestowed previously unseen powers on our executive branch. These actions have brought together such diverse groups as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and tea party activists to oppose certain actions that the U.S. Government has sanctioned [2,3]. The actions of 9/11 changed the tapestry of the United States in many ways. However, though this act was one of terror, there does not seem to be a universally acceptable definition of terrorism. Different definitions exist across the federal, international and research communities. Title 22 of the U.S. Code, Section 2656f(d) defines terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as "the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. This definition of terrorism is based upon the agency’s general functions under 28 CFR § 0.85 [4]. 18 U.S.C. § 2331 defines terrorism as either international or domestic. International Terrorism activities have the following three characteristics: Involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that violate federal or state law; appear to be intended.

Review Article on Impact of ATM Service on Customer Satisfaction Authored by Benyam Tadesse In banking industry, e-services ar...