Wednesday, August 5, 2020

Conservation Planning in Anthropogenic Landscapes - Juniper Publishers

Ecology & Conservation Science - Juniper Publishers


Abstract

Landscape-scale conservation planning offers a way out to the ecosystems degradation while ensuring the participation of different levels of governance and the community in this process. The corridor–patch–matrix model is an important strategy for conservation planning in anthropogenic landscapes because it allows the integration of natural and social systems in the conservation process. I recommend the corridor–patch–matrix model, as a landscape-scale conservation approach, because it offers a variety of perspectives on conservation across large areas and transcending multiple boundaries, political and ecological.

Keywords: Anthropogenic process Biodiversity Corridor–Patch–Matrix Model Ecosystem services; Landscape changes Landscape-scale conservation planning; Landscape ecology

Introduction

Landscape ecology and landscape changes

Landscape ecology has been widely recognized as a highly interdisciplinary science of heterogeneity [1]. In general, heterogeneity refers to a multiscale structure composed of intertwining patchiness and gradients in space and time. Heterogeneity may be regarded as an essential cause and consequence of diversity and complexity in both natural and social systems, and thus plays a key role in dealing with complexity in theory and practice. Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field concerned with how human and natural processes interact to shape function of ecosystems in time and space and how landscapes should be designed to foster sustainability [2]. Landscape ecology has also been considered as ‘‘a holistic and transdisciplinary science of landscape study, appraisal, history, planning and management, conservation, and restoration’’ [3].

In the last decades, many forested landscapes are changing rapidly in response to changes in key social and ecological drivers. Warming climate is altering forest productivity and the distribution of some tree species [4]. Future climate projections suggest that disturbance regimes could change profoundly in coming decades [5]. Change in land use is also ongoing. Forest harvesting continues in many landscapes while slowing in others, and exurban development and thus the extent of wildland-urban interface has increased, especially in forested landscapes with abundant environmental amenities [6]. Collectively, changingdrivers will alter landscape heterogeneity and resulting in the reduction of biodiversity and ecosystem services, which are broadly defined as the benefits provided by ecosystems that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living [7]. The greatest impacts on biodiversity have occurred at the native forest habitat level, such as the reduction and habitat loss, generating important changes in the provision of ecosystem services in different regions of the world. The impacts on the diversity of native forest habitat and ecosystem services have occurred due to the increase of the human population [8], which has transformed forest landscapes to anthropogenic landscapes in the last decades [9]. The need to conserve habitat diversity and ecosystem services within forest and anthropogenic landscapes has been recognized by practitioners [10]. The conservation of both resources would help to ensure the maintenance of multiple benefits for human populations that inhabit them.

Landscape-scale conservation planning

Landscape-scale conservation planning is closely related to the field of landscape ecology. Over the last decade, I have seen an increased emphasis on landscape perspectives in environmental planning at multiple scales because maintaining and restoring key landscape elements at multiple spatial scales may be critical in sustaining a wide range of ecosystem functions and services. Consequently, landscape-scale conservation planning offersa way out to the ecosystems degradation while ensuring the participation of different levels of governance and the community in this process. In this sense, it is important to highlight the corridor–patch–matrix model, as an important strategy for conservation planning in anthropogenic landscapes. This model is appropriate when the configuration of the landscape consist the native forest restricted to small patches sparsely distributed across the landscape. The main objective of the corridor–patch– matrix model is to maintain the quality and quantity of patches of native forest through management of the matrix. The condition of the matrix may be more important in determining the survival of the species and provision of ecosystem services than the isolation of patches [11,12]. Therefore, the management of the matrix should focus on sensitive buffer areas that improve the connectivity between forest patches and increase the ability of the matrix to support the biodiversity and ecosystem services. The planning and implementation of the corridor–patch–matrix model implies the commitment and active participation of governments and the community in general on a local and global scale.

Conclusion

I recommend a landscape-scale conservation approach because it offers a variety of perspectives on conservation across large areas and transcending multiple boundaries, political and ecological. I consider that the landscape-scale is a highly relevant development for conservation and happens when a landscape-scale conservation planning initiative may act as an umbrella for landowners, managers, and local planners from multiple jurisdictions to collaborate on making decisions to achieve regional conservation goals. Moreover, I consider that the corridor–patch–matrix model, as an important strategy for conservation planning in anthropogenic landscapes because it allows the integration of natural and social systems in the conservation process. 

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Regulation of odor gas emission and performance by probiotic Bacillus in livestock industry - Juniper Publishers

 Animal & Poultry Sciences - Juniper Publishers   

Abstract

Livestock operations have shifted from small farms to industrial facilities. Industrialized farms have benefits with improved the efficiency of animal management however there are problems with these operations, such as infectious disease and waste disposal. In the case of waste disposal, especially odors such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are problematic on farms. NH3 and H2S emissions can have severe negative effects on farm workers, such as chronic or acute pulmonary disorders, as well as on domestic animals like swine and poultry. Probiotics are a potential solution for this critical problem. Bacillus -based probiotics complex are generally recognized as useful microorganism to decrease the malodor and enhance the growth performance in livestock. Various studies of dietary supplementation with Bacillus have been conducted on monogastric animals. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. showed several beneficial effects in swine as follows; the reduction of noxious gases (NH3, H2S and mercaptan) emission, and the improvement of growth performance parameters such as average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio. It has been reported that feed supplementation with Bacillus spp. was definitely effective to improve the growth performance and egg production quality in chickens. Moreover, NH3 and H2S emissions from poultry manure were dramatically decreased after dietary Bacillus spp. supplementation. Some authors have suggested that the beneficial effects of Bacillus supplementation may be boosted by the addition of other probiotics, such as Lactobacillus spp. However, probiotics have a disadvantage as feed additives, namely the inconsistency in results caused by variation in dietary compositions, dose levels, strains, and environmental factors. Additional studies of complex probiotics are needed to find appropriate combinations of microbial sources, that satisfy both odor reduction and growth performance requirements in monogastric animals.

Keywords: Odor; Gas emission; Bacillus ; Ammonia; Hydrogen sulfide; livestock

Abbreviations: ADG: Average Daily Gain; ADFI: Average Daily Feed Intake; FCR: Feed Conversion Ratio; DFM: Direct Fed Microbial; DM: Dry matter; CP: Crude Protein; EE: Ether Extract; CF: Crude Fiber; GE: Gross Energy; ME: Metabolic Energy; PKM: Palm Kernel Meal

Introduction

Livestock operations have transitioned over time from small farms to industrial facilities. Industrialized farms have improved the efficiency of animal management. However, there are problems with these large-scale operations, such as infectious disease and waste disposal [1]. Waste disposal can cause environmental issues, including soil erosion and the production of global greenhouse gases and air pollutants [2,3]. In terms of air pollutants, various emissions such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and other odors are released from livestock production facilities [4]. These emissions are not only a nuisance to people living in nearby residential areas [5] but can also result in health problems for farm workers. Ammonia and H2S have shown critical negative effects on farm workers, including chronic or acute pulmonary disorders, as well as on domestic animals like swine and poultry.

Ammonia is generated from livestock barns, open feedlots, and manure storage facilities on farms, as well as during manure handling, treatment, and spreading. Ammonia dissolves readily in water (e.g., swine urine and drinking water) where it ionizes to form an ammonium ion. The atmospheric pressure and temperature affect ammonia solubility in water from dissolved or suspended materials [6]. On the other hand, ammonia produced in poultry facilities is created by urea and uric acid degradation [7]. Another source of odor in livestock production is H2S, which has been recognized as harmful to humans, and animals in deep-pit production systems [8,9]. Hydrogen sulfide is formed under anaerobic conditions by bacteria reducing sulfate to sulfide;sulfide then combines with hydrogen ions to form hydrogen sulfide [10]. Pigs are affected by different levels of hydrogen sulfide. Severe distress, eye irritation, and drooling can be caused by concentrations of 100 ppm. Pigs exposed to 250 ppm of H2S may exhibit cyanosis, convulsions, and death [11]. Farm workers are also affected negatively by hydrogen sulfide exposure. Humans can detect a smell like rotten eggs when exposed to 0.1 to 5 ppm of H2S, even though these levels are not toxic. Eye and respiratory irritation in humans can occur at H2S levels of 100 ppm. High levels of H2S, (e.g., 150 to 200 ppm) cannot be detected by humans due to olfactory paralysis. At levels >200 ppm, H2S affect the nervous system and levels >1,000 ppm result in immediate collapse and respiratory paralysis [12].

There are several possible solutions to mitigate the environmental pollution from animal housing. Excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus can be reduced by formulating diets that improve nutrient digestibility [13]. Feed utilization and dry matter intake can be improved by fine grinding and pelleting, which reduce the size and increase the surface area of grains, thereby increasing the potential for interaction with digestive enzymes [13]. Enzymes can also be used to increase nutrient availability in animal feed. Enzymes can supplement the host’s endogenous enzyme production, increasing the availability of nutrients, improving the digestibility of fibrous material, and decreasing any anti-nutritional factors present in feed ingredients [14]. For example, protease can degrade protein sources such as soybean meal and improve protein digestibility [13]. Other indirect contributors to improving swine house environments include antibiotics, probiotics, and organic acids. Low crude protein formulations using synthetic amino acids can also be used to reduce N excretion. Probiotics can protect young animals against enteropathogenic disorders and improve growth performance [15]. Studies have shown that probiotics can create a gastrointestinal tract environment that is unfavorable to pathogenic growth [16]. Probiotics can decrease intestinal microbial catabolism and have a protein sparing effect, leading to reduced nitrogen flows [17]. A number of Bacillus strains could be used for feed additive in livestock industry. Bacillus are aerobic or facultative anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped, and spore-forming bacteria. The spore-forming habit of Bacillus is highly beneficial for long term storage without a loss of activity, compared with non-sporeforming bacteria. Spores also have the ability to survive low pH, harsh environments, meaning their probiotic properties can benefit the small intestine [18].

Bacillus in swine can help to improve gut health and immunity for piglets and reduce environmental pollutants such as odor gas emissions from pig manure [19]. Upadhaya et al. [20] proposed that the reduction of fecal NH3 emissions was observed when Bacillus including Bacillu including feed was supplied to pigs, suggesting the improvement of nutrient digestibility by probiotics. However, Wang et al. [21] reported that it has no influence to enhance nutrient digestibility but indicates the effectiveness for the reduction of slurry NH3 emissions. The roles of Bacillus in poultry are similar to those in swine. Various effects have been observed in poultry fed with Bacillus, including histological changes in the intestine of broilers, increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, improved nutrient digestibility and absorption capacity of the small intestine [22], reduced digesta viscosity caused by soluble non-starch polysaccharides (which affect nutrient availability and absorption) [23], improved quality of meat and eggs [24], and reduced NH3 emissions from manure [25].

Effects of Bacillus spp. in swine

Reduction of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) excretion

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are negative substances on farm workers as well as animals in swine production and cause environment pollution [26]. Nguyen et al. [27] found that the supplementation of Bacillus -containing feed showed an advantageous effect to decrease NH3 emissions but have no effect on the reduction of other gases (H2S and mercaptan). A recent study [27], showed that the addition of the increase in Lactobacillus inhibited pathogenic microorganisms and improved nutrient digestibility, resulting in reduced fecal NH3 emissions. Growing pigs fed diets with Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis for 15 weeks, showed improved performance and reduced gas emissions due to increased fecalLactobacillus counts and improved utilization of sulfur-containing amino acids [28]. It was concluded that the increase in Lactobacillus reduced intestinal pH through the production of organic acids, and that the bacitracin (bacteriocin) secreted by B. licheniformis inhibited the microbes that produce urease, thereby reducing NH3 gas emissions. These results are supported by our research data, which showed that pigs fed diets with B. subtilis complex probiotics produced lower NH3 and H2S emissions after a three-week growing period (unpublished data). These results suggest that three weeks of feeding is needed for probiotic adherence in the gut to have positive effects in swine.

According to Balasubramanian et al. [29], when probiotics containing Bacillus coagulans, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis were fed to growing and finishing pigs over 16 weeks, no reduction in fecal noxious gas (NH3, H2S) emissions was observed. Yan et al. [30] found that increased nutrient digestibility reduced the substrate for microbial fermentation in the large intestine, which resulted in a decrease in fecal gas emissions. Chen et al. [31] showed that dietary Bacillus supplementation decreased NH3 emissions, however, other odor substances such as H2S and mercaptan did not decrease. Bacillus spp. as probiotics can also affect the production of malodorous substances such as skatole. Skatole is a malodorous compound in meat and fecal that causes an off-flavor, so called “boar taint” [32]. Sheng et al. [33] demonstrated that dietary B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans supplementation decreased the skatole content of meat and feces. Doerner et al. [34] found that the reduced number of Clostridium in the feces of pigs fed Bacillus spp. was consistent with a lower skatole concentration in the meat and feces; Clostridium in feces is involved in the conversion of tryptophan to skatole.

Growth Performance in swine

Nguyen et al. [27] reported that dietary supplementation with probiotics-based Bacillus in weaning pigs linearly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) on days 0 to 7 of the experiment, as well as ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) on days 8 to 21. According to research by Lan et al. Kim et al. [28], dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis and B. subtilis complex probiotics (Bioplus YC) in growing pigs for 15 weeks resulted in improved growth performance in some periods but there was no significant difference from the control over the study period as a whole. The reasons for improved performance may be explained by changes in intestinal microorganisms and an increase in the secretion of digestive enzymes. Hu et al. [35] observed that the ADG and FCR of piglets were improved and diarrhea occurrence was reduced when weaning pigs were fed B. subtilis KN-42 for 26 days. Greater bacterial diversity in the intestinal environment indicated an increase in the relative number of Lactobacillus and reduction in the relative number of E. coli in the feces. Wang et al. [21] also reported that ADG tended to increase linearly and ADFI increased as the levels of probiotic (Bioplus 2B®) increased, however, no linear or quadratic effects were observed in FCR. In growing and finishing pigs, dietary direct-fed microbial (DFM) supplementation has been shown to have negative effects on growth performance. Growing and finishing pigs have better digestibility, improved immunity, and increased resistance to intestinal disorders [36]. Balasubramanian et al. [29] reported that dietary supplementation of three probiotic Bacillus strains (B. coagulans, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis) did not show a positive effect on the ADG and FCR without affecting ADFI in growing and finishing pigs. Upadhaya et al. [37] reported that there were significantly effective to ADG and ADFI, when two probiotic complexes (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) was supplied to growing and finishing pigs as feed additive during the experimental period.

According to Patarapreech et al. [38], both types of probiotic additives (Bacillus subtilis + Sanizyme®) improved the nutrient utilization of feed components [dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), and gross energy (GE)] in the starter and grower periods, as well as growth performance (ADG, ADFI, FCR). Such improvements in nutrient digestibility may be due to the enzymes secreted by Bacillus spp., such as lipase, cellulose, amylase, and protease [39].
The results of probiotic complex supplementation are not consistent. The use of Bacillus -based probiotics in diets fed to finishing pigs did not affect ADG, FCR [40], ADFI, and FCR [31]. Davis et al. [39] also reported that two probiotic Bacillus strains (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) were ineffective in improving the growth performance in growing and finishing pigs, when they were supplied in feed during test period. Moreover, Sheng et al. [32] also found that the dietary supplementation of two probiotic complex (B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans) did not show a remarkable improvement of growth performance in growing pigs, but indicate dramatical effects in terms of meat quality, antioxidant function, and the skatole content of meat. The effects of Bacillus -based probiotics are influenced by a variety of factors, (e.g., age of the pigs, diet composition, differences in strains of bacteria, dosage levels, and breeding environment) [41].

Effects of other beneficial microbials

Growing pigs fed a diet with 10% palm kernel meal (PKM) and added probiotics (B. subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), showed a reduction in fecal NH3, total mercaptans, and H2S content [42]; pigs fed a diet without PKM produced less mercaptans than pigs fed diets with PKM. The addition of probiotics to a non-PKM diet had a significant effect on ADG and FCR, but the addition of probiotics to a diet with PKM did not have a positive effect on performance. These results may be due to the presence of nonstarch polysaccharides in PKM creating a viscous environment in the gut.
Chen et al. [43] found the dietary supplementation of three probiotic complex (Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. cerevisiae, and B. subtilis) enhance ADG, when it was provided to the growing pigs for six weeks. In addition, fecal NH3-N excretion was reduced when pigs were fed a probiotic complex, however, there was no effect on volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Chen et al. [31] reported that dietary supplementation probiotics combination (B. subtilis, B. coagulans, and L. acidophilus) in finishing pigs reduced fecal NH3-N production and improved ADG, however, there was no effect on ADFI or FCR. In their study, digestibility of N was not increased, therefore, the reduction in fecal NH3-N may not have resulted from nutrient digestibility but rather changes in intestinal microflora.

Effects of Bacillus spp. in poultry

Reduction in ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) excretion

In the poultry industry, Bacillus spp. probiotics are widely used. A reduction in NH3 gas emissions from excreta was observed for poultry fed metabolic energy (ME)- and crude protein (CP)- reduced diets [44]. Poultry fed probiotic-supplemented diets also showed reduced NH3 gas emissions compared with those fed diets without probiotics. Decreasing the CP content of the feed reduces the amount of synthetic amino acids supplied, thereby reducing the amount of N that is excreted by the poultry [45]. In addition, the feeding of probiotics can lead to increased nutrient utilization and changes in the balance of intestinal microorganisms, which can reduce NH3 gas emissions. According to research by Jeong et al. and Kim et al. [25], broilers fed a diet supplemented with B. subtilis C-3102 for five weeks, showed a reduction in NH3 due to an increase in the number of Lactobacillus and reduction in the number of pathogenic bacteria. However, there were no effects on H2S, mercaptan, or acetic acid production. Ahmed et al. [46] reported that the supplementation of feed containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens showed the effect of NH3 reduction in feces during raising term. The observed reduction in NH3 emissions from broiler excreta may be due to increased nutrient utilization and changes in intestinal microbiota. Another reason is that B. amyloliquefaciens reduced the pH of the feces. A reduced concentration of E. coli and improved utilization of sulfur amino acids in the intestine could reduce the conversion of fecal ammonium to volatile ammonia. Tang et al. [47] indicated that inclusion of B. amyloliquefaciens product in laying hens reduced NH3 production in a six-week feeding trial; the number of cecal Lactobacillus was increased, but the number of E. coli and Salmonella bacteria and NH3 gas emission was reduced.

Performance in Poultry

The use of antibiotics in the poultry industry to control pathogenic infections, such as necrotic enteritis, has been banned in some places due to concerns about consumer safety. In such cases, Bacillus spp. have been used to improve performance through positive changes in intestinal microbiota. Bacillus subtilis was added to a ME- and CP-reduced diet to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation related to energy and protein [44]. Poultry fed diets with reduced energy and protein content showed a decreased in ADG and FCR. However, animals fed diets with probiotics showed significant improvements in ADG and FCR in the growing and finishing periods. These performance improvements did not appear immediately; three weeks were required for normal enzyme production that produced effects. A recent study by Jeong et al. & Kim et al. [25] found that broilers fed a diet with B. subtilis C-3102 showed improved ADG and FCR, however, there was no effect on meat quality. In this study, Lactobacillus counts in the cecum, ileum, and excreta were significantly increased, and E. coli counts in the cecum and excreta were decreased with dietary B. subtilis supplementation. Ahmed et al. [46] reported that ADG, ADFI, and FCR were improved when broilers were fed a diet with a B. amyloliquefaciens probiotic; serum IgG and IgA were also increased. Tang et al. [47] reported that laying hens fed a diet with B. amyloliquefaciens commercial product for six weeks had better egg production, eggshell strength, and eggshell thickness than hens that received a non-supplemented diet. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens has the ability to produce extracellular enzymes, such as cellulose, α-amylases, protease, and metalloproteases. Those enzymes can help to increase the efficiency of digestion and absorption of nutrients [48]. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens also produce bacteriocins, such as subtilin, which have antibacterial effects against pathogenic microorganisms [49].

Effects with other beneficial microbial

Probiotics have been used to reduce NH3 emissions, improve performance, and maintain livestock product safety in the poultry industry, most commonly with a Bacillus spp. complex. In one study, a combination of Pichia guilliermondii, B. subtilis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, at a ratio of 1:2:1, reduced NH3 gas emissions by 46% in vitro test [50]. This probiotic complex significantly decreased crude protein digestibility, pH, NH3-N, urease, and uricase activity. Furthermore, the number of microorganisms responsible for fermenting carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids was increased.

Conclusion

In conclusion, dietary Bacillus spp. probiotic supplementation in monogastric animals can reduce NH3 and H2S production depending on the conditions. In terms of performance, there were various effects of supplementation level, viability, and composition of probiotic species, diet formulation, age of animals, livestock house environment, and so on. Nutrient digestibility can be improved by the enzymes or bacteriocin produced by Bacillus spp. In addition, supplementation with Bacillus spp. can help reduce fecal odor production, gas emission, and improve the performance of monogastric animals. Additional studies of complex probiotics that satisfy both odor reduction and performance requirements for monogastric animals are recommended. 

Monday, August 3, 2020

Contraindications to Physical Therapy 1-Massage Treatment - Juniper Publishers

Palliative Medicine & Care - Juniper Publishers


Opinion

“Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease.” “ Hippocrates”

Indroduction

a) Health Benefits of Massage
b) Some of the physical benefits of massage and myotherapy include:
c) Reduced muscle tension.
d) Improved circulation.
e) Stimulation of the lymphatic system.
f) Reduction of stress hormones.
g) Relaxation.
h) Increased joint mobility and flexibility.
i) Improved skin tone.
j) Improved recovery of soft tissue injuries.
k) Types of Massages.
Hot stone, Aromatherapy, Deep tissue, Sport, Trigger point, Reflexology, Shiatsu, Thai, Prenatal, Couple’s, Chair. Noli Nocere!!!!!

Contraindications to Massage Treatment

Massage treatment is non-invasive, relaxing and natural. It is therefore generally considered a safe treatment for most people.

Total contraindications

When you have any of these conditions, please do not book a massage: Fever, Contagious diseases, including any cold or flu, no matter how mild it may seem, Under the influence of drugs or alcohol-including prescription pain medication, Recent operations or acute injuries, Neuritis, Skin diseases.

Local contraindications

The therapist can massage but not over any areas affected by: Varicose veins, Undiagnosed lumps or bumps, Pregnancy, Bruising, Cuts, Abrasions, Sunburn, Undiagnosed pain, Inflammation, including arthritis

Medical contraindications

If you suffer from any of the following conditions, massage can only take place once it has been approved before your session in writing by your Physician. Cardio-vascular conditions (thrombosis, phlebitis, hypertension, heart conditions), Any condition already being treated by a medical practitioner, Oedema, Psoriasis or eczem, High blood pressure, Osteoporosis, Cancer, Nervous or psychotic conditions, Heart problems, angina, those with pacemakers, Epilepsy, Diabetes, Bell’s palsy, trapped or pinched nerves, Gynecological infections. If you have any questions concerning ’Contraindications to Physical Therapy.1-Massage Treatment.’, interactive clinical pharmacology, or any other questions, please inform me.


Friday, July 31, 2020

Optimization of the Optical Methods of Ore Grade Analysis at Mineral Processing - Juniper Publishers

Insights in Mining Science & Technology - Juniper Publishers


Introduction

In-stream ore grade analysis is a new trend in effective control of ore benefication processes. On-line estimation of ore grade can be implemented based on continuous measurement of the mineralogical composition directly in-stream or using in-stream sampling with the following analysis. Reliable separate determination of minerals in ore is possible using modern formats of colour image recognition. The spectral characteristics of minerals in visible light are the source of information for optical spectrum-based estimation of ore mineralogical composition (Figure 1). The task of determining the grade of ore, entering processing, is to determine its similarity to the main technological types of ores [1]. The calculation of ore grade was carried out using a multi-criteria method for affiliation shares calculations. The system mathematical model provides for calculation of the incoming ore affiliation by six (or more) significant parameters (minerals contents in the ore). At the Erdenet processing plant (Mongolia), a new facility for advanced ore diagnostics, based on optical analyzer of mineral composition, was tested. The optical spectrum-based analysis system was installed above the conveyor (Figure 2) for feeding ore to the grinding operation [2]. The ore scanning on the conveyor belt is carried out continuously. Then, using the algorithm, recognition of the ore grade is carried out. For exact analysis, the special flatbed facility was developed [3]. The measurement technique involves preparing the ore sample, forming the measurement area in the form of a flat portion of the sample, illumination and capture of the images in the visible spectrum (Figure 3).
Insights in Mining Science & Technology
Insights in Mining Science & Technology
Insights in Mining Science & Technology
To calculate the required parameters of grinding and flotation, special studies were carried out on the most pronounced samples of the typical ores, and the process diagrams for their grind ing and flotation were developed. The value of the pre-set function SF for each parameter of the process was calculated as a weighted average of the parameters values for each “typical” ore type (SFi) considering the contribution of the given type in the ore’s mixture using Equation (1):
Insights in Mining Science & Technology
where γi - relative weight fraction of an ore type in the ore mixture incoming to processing. The predefined functions were used as baseline in the local systems of automatic control of grinding and flotation processes at the Erdenet processing plant. Using the procedure for ore grade determination increases the automatic control stability, as it allows a fast response to changes in the incoming ore grade. Maintaining the optimum degree of grinding and reagent consumption in the flotation provides increasing recovery of copper and molybdenum into concentrates by 0.3% and 1.1%, respectively, as well as decreasing the consumption of reagents by 2–3% [4].

   

Thursday, July 30, 2020

Employee Motivation, An Organizational Performance Improvement Strategy (A Review on Influence of Employee Motivation on Organizational Performance) - Juniper Publishers

JOJ Sciences - Juniper Publishers  

Abstract

The major aim of most organizations worldwide is to be good performer in terms of goal achievement. They lay several strategies to boost their productivity and some of these strategies touch on the mode of employment or change of human resource to become result centered. According to Hussein & Simba [1], employee’s performance fundamentally depends on employee motivation, training and development, performance appraisals, employee satisfaction, compensation, job security, organizational structure among others. It is out of such arguments that the study was informed to examine how motivating employees influence performance of organizations. The study employed document analysis as a method for gathering relevant information required by the study.

Keywords: Motivation; Employee; Organization; Performance

Introduction

The term motivation has received varied scholarly definitions. According to Baron et al. [2] motivation was driven from Latin word ‘movere’ meaning move. The act of providing people with incentives to make them act in a desired manner is considered as motivation Certo [3]. In view of Nelson [4], motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. According to Geomani [5], motivation is a decision-making process. It is inspiring a person to accomplish a behavior which is goal-oriented. Stanley [6] perceived motivation forces that are psychological and control direction of an individual’s effort level together with his/her tenacity in obstacles. Globally, desire to become successful and have constant progress is in the mind of every organization and business owners Manzoor [7]. According Manzoor [7], many organizations are facing challenges of employee retention regardless of their sizes, technology and market focus following the competitiveness in the current era. Nevertheless, these challenges can be overcome through adoption of a strong bonding between employees and their organizations Manzoor [7]. It is articulated that employees form the most critical part of any organization hence need to influence and persuade them towards tasks fulfillment is also crucial.

Discussion

According to Hussein & Simba [1], employee’s performance fundamentally depends on employee motivation, training and development, performance appraisals, employee satisfaction, compensation, job security, organizational structure among others. Osabiya [8] acknowledged different strategies that various organizations design to compete and achieve prosperity. He asserted that employee’s motivation determines any business facet’s success. Further, he noted that the capability of drawing, holding and advancing employees that are talented are the main characteristics of a business that is successful. He considered employees as an asset with the highest significance in an organization chiefly in industries which are low-tech labour rigorous. Geomani [5] established that for an organization to grow, it must consider motivation as a significant factor in achievement of its growth. Stanley acknowledged the change and competition among companies which seek a competitive edge in today’s market hence call for employee motivation for their retention in the organization for improved performance.

In view of Neeraj [9], the values and vision of an organization, employee engagement, acknowledgement of management and appreciation after work together with inclusive leadership legitimacy are the critical factors in motivating employees for better performance. According to Stanley [6], most organizations face several challenges of which employee turnover has been identified as a universal problem around the world face. He noted that de-motivation is amongst the factors that contribute to high employee turnover. This was also affirmed by Mosley et al. [10]. A growing consensus among managers and leaders on the significance of combining effective motivation incentives to improve organizational performance was established by Cole & Kelly (2011). For organizations to meet their objectives, they must have a workforce that is motivated and works towards achieving the said objectives (Steers & Porter, 2011). Levy (2013) contended that keeping employees motivated is the greatest challenge many organizations face despite acknowledging that motivating them improves the organizational performance. Nevertheless, the organizations put efforts to identify and implement programs that prove effective in improving employee productivity Deci [10]. George & Jones (2013) posited that increase in salaries alone is not enough, other motivational factors must be considered for improved organizational performance.

In 2014, Jobber & Lee contended that a poorly motivated labour-force is costly in that it makes an organization realize lower production and performance. They established that lack of motivation is characterized by high/excessive staff turnover, frequent absenteeism, increased expenses, and a negative effect on the morale of colleagues. Al-Madi et al. [11] argued that the success of an organization largely depends on quality of her human resource irrespective of the industry within which it operates. This was also established by Deci [10]. This leaves mangers and leaders with no alternative other than striving to motivate their workforce to improve the performance of their organizations Nabi et al. [12]. Kemoh [13] asserted that motivation falls among the significant factors in an organizational behavior and human resource management.

According to Al-Madi et al. [11] employees are the real assets of any organization. Mohsen et al. [14] asserted that employees form the company’s engine. They noted a rising need of the job being done properly by the staff and the organization getting the required output from employees. Geomani [5] posited that for this to be achieved, there must be adequate motivation of employees by the management. Omollo [15] contended that it is always rewarding to a business to keep employee committed, motivated and involved in their jobs in that motivated and committed employees are more productive. According to Waiyaki [16], organizations are in a constant pressure to retain their workforce in a global and highly competitive environments. Deci [12] postulated that experienced, reliable and highly skilled employees are an asset for any organization.

Many scholars have argued that employees who are motivated highly normally are characterized by high productivity. Nevertheless, Certo [10] contended that good performance does not only emanate from motivation but also other factors such as employee’s ability and skills, supplies, equipment, and time. Previous scholarly studies have noted that pressure that most organizations are constantly experiencing to retain their workforce in a highly competitive, global environment Waiyaki [16]. Deci [10] contended that the only valuable assets that any organization can be proud of is its highly skilled, reliable and experienced employees. Nabi et al. [12] acknowledged that employee’s productivity increase with its level of motivation even though this fact was refuted by Certo [10] who posited that a good performance is not because of motivation only, but also includes other factors such as ability, skills, equipment, supplies and time. One of the challenges facing most organizations is a high staff turnover irrespective of the salaries they offer Aguinis, [17]. This is a clear indication that salary is not the only motivator Waiyaki [16]. According to George & Jones (2013), the managers and supervisors should understand the need of individual employees and what motivates them instead of assuming a one-size-fits-all approach. Emeka et al. [18] compared an organization with its workforce and noted that an organization is only as strong as its workforce. Storey (2013) emphasized on the need to treat human resources with great care as they hold the productivity of any organization. Such kind of treatments are lucking in some organization even though the managers have recognized employees as invaluable assets in an organization.

Motivation of employees is perceived to have positive impact on the performance of organizations, yet many organizations have not realized this, or they have but lack the capacity to implement it Kemoh, [13]. Considering various kinds of motivation such as training, promotion, salary increment, sponsorship for further studies, improving working environment conditions, rewards and praises, many organizations have not adopted these strategies for improving organizational performance Osabiya [8]. Instead, the employees get their salaries or remunerations late, they sometimes face harassment and frustrations, they work in poor working environments and treated as slaves with their leaders, they are at times discriminated and denied promotions and denied even the sick leave, medical cover and houses allowances, in some cases they are not paid for overtime.

In some cases, the employees get dismissed from work simply because of lack of adequate skills which the organization can improve through offering trainings at some level Nguyen [18]. The leadership style in some organization has also been a major issue affection organizations performance Gachingiri [19]. In some cases, the employees get treated badly with no respect by some leaders. Motivation as a strategy to improve the performance of the organization, entails several things. Most organizations have failed just because of their lack of concerns on the welfare of employees. Motivations take various forms and not all about money or increase of salaries. This study recognizes the following as a way of employee motivation.

Training and workshops

Several employees have been dismissed from their duties just because of lack of basic knowledge on operating some simple machines. We live in a competitive world where organizations need to improve the capacities, competence and capabilities of the employees they have Tella et al. [20]. Employees training enables them to improve on their knowledge, skills, capabilities and competence. Some organizations have taken the initiative to engage their employees in various workshop and training to help boost their skills in performance. As considered the most asset of the organization, employees feel encouraged and empowered when trained and embrace the organizational goals with all their efforts. This in turn increases organizational productivity Waiyaki [16]. Some organizations have also adopted the use of bench marking where their employees are taken to other companies or organization to see by themselves and learn how various activities are undertaken. The new environment they are taken motivates them and makes the eager to learn from people who works with them in the same capacity but may be effective in their performance. The knowledge gained from this together with workshops can be transferred to the organization which sponsored them to help meet the organizational set objectives. Training empowers employees with new skills and competencies.

Good Leadership Style

The way employee is handled directly impact their commitment and performance in an organization. Some leader has adopted the character of being commanders and do not look like part of the team in an organization. They put a lot of pressure on employees and treat them with no respect despite their ages. Under such conditions, the organization should expect very little in terms of productivity Gachingiri [19]. This normally brings the difference in performance among organization set in the same region. Some may perform poorly but has skilled and able employees. Frustrations in the organization brought by poor leadership demoralizes employees and may lead to high staff turn-over. A good leader is always understanding. What should be acknowledged is that in every home an individual comes has its own stress. Employee might have their own at work places combined with others associated with family obligations. Such employees may come to work while stressed and may need a very caring and understanding leader. A leader who takes employee’s problem as his or hers and embraces an employee makes him motivated committed to his duties in the organization. This improves performance and organizational productivity Achua & Lussier (2013). The senior leadership, direct manager and employees are responsible for motivation Bhuvanaiah & Raya [21]. Kemoh [13] posited that engagement, trust, job satisfaction, achievement, values of individual and organization, acknowledgement and rewards fall among the motivational.

Improved Working Environment

Every employee needs a stress-free environment. This factor has not been considered by many organizations. In fact, some managers and leaders in the organization have slighted the issue of working environment Surjosuseno [22]. Many scholars have always advocated for a healthy and safe working conditions. Sedarmayanti [23] gave two distinct working environments which comprises physical and non-physical. He further contended that employees are motivated by a better working condition. According to him clean, secured, friendly and safe working environment motivate employee and this in turn improves the organizational performance.

Work environment is about creating conditions in which an employee can perform his/her duties comfortably Gitonga [24]. He further noted that effective application of ergonomics can help realize an equilibrium amid the task of employees’ and demands. Some employees have been exposed in a working environment which are dusty, noisy and hostile. They organizations at times do not provides protective gadgets or working gears that may protect the employees from dust and noise. Some of them work in a poorly ventilate facilities that degrade their health gradually. An employee might be discouraged while he or she thinks of such conditions and may feel like not going to work. In most cases absenteeism realized by many organizations may be associated with their poor working environment that the employees tend to fear Bushiri [25]. Hostility of the environment in this case may because of non-corporation among the employees themselves or the senior staff creating a wide gap between them and their juniors. A friend, clean, safe and healthy working environment encourages someone and shuns fear in him or her and makes him to be committed to the work. Through such commitment, an organization realizes its set objectives.

Employee Remuneration

Traditionally, work done goes with at least a token inform of wage or salary depending on the agreement between the work own and the person contracted. Many organizations look at this as the only employee motivational strategy Babagana & Dungus [26]. Advantage has been taken by some organizations that pay very low remunerations to their employee in the name of standing a chance to hire others who are jobless at a lower cost. Such mentally has not only demoralized the employees but also affected the same organization with staff turn-over. Some employees have done overtime, some are also paid in a flat rate regardless of their education qualification. Some organizations have also been characterized with delayed payment of their employees. Previous scholars have noted that appropriate and timely payment of employees motivate them and increases their commitment to work for the organization Ojeleye [27]. A good example that can be given in this case is parttime jobs that are done to the institutions like universities in Kenya where payment might delay for over three years. At this level, the employees whether temporarily contracted, does not give fully his services. An employee feels frustrated and may appear in class even once or twice in a whole semester. What is affected most is the quality of the organization’s products. In such go on in other organizations that deal with production of goods, the performance and productivity go down.

Proper Organizational Physical Facilities

Physical facilities play a very important role in an organizational productivity. Someone once put it that a bad workman quarrels with his tools. Sometimes you may find that what the employees uses in an organization does not give him easy time. Where he put to work may also be uncomfortable. An organization with poor structures, and equipment demoralizes employees as they are left with no alternative other than struggling to produce. Good physical facilities encourage and make the work easier for the employees. Poorly ventilated structures threaten employee’s health. Employee’s welfare includes all those facilities, services and benefits which are provided by employer to its staff for their comfort Sameer [28]. She further posited that employee’s welfare, safety and health are the measures that promote the efficiency of the staffs. She contended that different welfare programs provided by any organization to its workers have direct impact on the physical, health and mental efficiency alertness, morale and overall efficiency of the employees. She considered accommodations arrangements and canteen facilities as some of the welfare facilities which can be categorized to as comfort of living as well as working environment.

According to Sameer [28], the welfare facilities can be classified as Intra-mural welfare facilities which includes all the activities relating to industrial fatigue, providing safety measures to staffs like enough lighting conditions, first aid services, good layout of the plant and machinery among other. The other type of facility is the extra-mural welfare facilities which include the facilities which are provided outside the company’s boundary. They include recreations sports, better housing accommodations, educational facilities etc. The provision of these facilities is voluntary. The third type of facility is the statutory facilities which are all the welfare facilities which are passed by government of a country. It is worth noting that no company can ignore these facilities and mishandling of statutory facilities can be result toward punishable under the government Act concerned. The fourth is mutual facilities which are facilities which are usually outside the reach of statutory. These activities are voluntarily undertaken by the staffs themselves for their own interest. The other type of facilities is the voluntary facilities which are those facilities which are provided by employers voluntarily. Adapted from Sameer [28]. An organization with proper office equipment and good physical facilities motivate employees and this increase productivity and organization performance. The health facilities, educational and recreational facilities are vital for an organization. This study also noted that employees can be motivated by factors such as mentoring, counseling, coaching and assimilation.

Mentoring

An individual is not born with knowledge of everything. It has been noted that even after going to school we still need to be taken through various activities that improves our proficiency. We need people who are more skilled and experienced than us to help us learn more things required or expected of us. In a working environment, for instance organizations, new recruits might not be well vast with knowledge and/or skill to perform to the standards required by the organization. They need to be subjected to mentorship where they are guided and led by experienced and skilled employees. Through mentorship, employee gains skill, knowledge and competence from their mentors who know the organizational goals and standards Nyamori [29]. They get motivated to perform as their mentors. Unfortunately, some organizations have not recognized mentorship as a strategy of motivating employees and improving performance. Instead some even send away their new recruits simply because they are unable to perform basic tasks. In most cases skills and experience are gained in the field where someone interact practically with what is required of him to deliver. Those that have adopted this strategy have seen how fast their new employees adapt and perform to the standards set by the organization. Mentoring increases someone’s capability and competence to perform. Mentorship is considered tailor-made advice that is intended to improve the capability of inexperienced employee Tanoli [30].

Coaching
In view of Muriithi [31], this is a systematic and collaborative process aimed at finding solution or good result. Coaching is also done with an aim to enhance the experience of the employees. It is different from mentorship in that mentors normally engaged in the activities that they would like their mentees or juniors to learn while the coach always stands and give instructions on what to be followed. The managers and organizational leaders may become coaches through organizing seminars or workshops to build experience or capacity and competence of their employees. Having set targets in an organization, employees are oriented towards achieving this target. Some of the targets might be set higher and these might cause panic and stressful working environment to the employees. The coaches will help employee through coaching on how to reach the set targets whose capabilities of skill they have might not allow them. Coaching adds skills to perform various tasks that an employee is assigned Bwengi [32]. The employees get motivated when they can do or perform task that appear to worry or when they meet high targets set by the organizations. Coaching is considered a continuously monitored improvement process where an employee is always at the watch to perform as expected of him or her. The previous scholars noted that organizations which have adopted and embraced coaching to their employees have been able to retain their employees and have also improved their performance El Achi & Sleilati [33].

Counseling
In view of Padmasiri & Jayatilake [34] counseling of an employee is like provision of a health care intervention which is psychological. According to Matolo & Mukulu [35] poor performance of an employee may be associated with stress and demoralization. Employees who are demoralized and stressed have emotional responses and are characterized by low productivity. Challenges we meet at home in meeting family obligations may be stressful. Workplace environment may also be stressful. Working to meet the organizational set targets may also stressful. This therefore leaves the organizations with no alternative other than arranging for employee counselling. Employee counseling provides relief to the situations considered impossible to overcome. Stress is associate with dissatisfaction, lack of concentration and anxiety which in turn lowers employee’s productivity. Migwe et al. [36] noted that a stress-free employee is motivated and provides its best to the organization. They therefore advocate for organizations to adopt employee counseling as it helps relieve employees from tension and make them be focused to achieving organizational goals and set objectives. Employees should not be over tasked as they suffer exhaustion which demoralizes them.

Assimilation
Assimilation of employees has been considered a motivational factor in an organization. Some organizations do not embrace their employees with the orientation required. A recruit takes long before he or she becomes part of the team. Socializing with the staff he finds in the organization becomes a problem. The recruit become a lone range and feels isolated and alienated or stigmatized Kokemuller [37]. He operates independently without the love and concern of other employees. Assimilating new employees and making the part of the organizational team makes one feel part of that family fast and adapts to the organizational set standards. When a new employee is embraced and made feel part of the team, interaction and enquiring form others become easier Basu [6]. If this is not done, the person may feel inferior and may not ask what is required or expected of him. Operation in such fear hinder performance. It is therefore imperative for organization to embrace their new employee with love and brotherhood to enable them to adapt fast and meet organizational goals.

Conclusion

Considering document analysis that this study undertook, the researcher agrees that motivation of employee can significantly affect performance of an organization. It is true that a stressed, exhausted and demoralized hearts and/or mind are associated with poor performance while a motivated one remain focused to the organizational goals hence improved productivity and performance.


Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Importance of Psychiatric Evaluation and Patient Selection in the Field of Cosmetic Dermatology - Juniper Publishers

Dermatology & Cosmetics- Juniper Publishers

Introduction

Cosmetics is an ever-increasing component of every-day practice for dermatologists. However, as elective procedures such as neuromodulator injections, dermal fillers, and body contouring have pushed their way into most dermatology practices, little objective research has been done to identify ideal patients to undergo these procedures. It is the opinion of these authors that objective studies to evaluate the pre and post procedural psychologic well-being are essential to identify patients who may have an underlying and undisclosed psychiatric illness that is contributing to their decision-making process. This issue is further complicated by the plethora of cosmetic day-spas that offer these services without physician oversite or ethical obligation to responsibly select candidates. One example regarding the importance of patient selection is exemplified by patients with body-dysmorphic disorder (BDD) - a condition in which the subject has a fixation with one or more perceived flaws in their appearance.

Some studies have reported as high as 12% of patients seen in a dermatology clinic are afflicted with this disorder, and it is our opinion that part of the solution in managing patients such as this is through proper identification and preventing unnecessary procedures that may serve to reinforce their delusion [1]. Furthermore, the rapid growth of sensitive cosmetic procedures such as non-surgical penoplasy is a relatively new field in which previously developed procedures are being creatively applied in ways that are wholly unstudied with regards to the appropriate patient populations. We feel that in order to responsibly select patients, a simple screening tool used for pre and post procedure evaluation of their happiness and/or psychologic well-being would serve as a simple way for clinicians to help monitor their patient’s satisfaction while preventing procedures on patients who may never be satisfied. There are very few studies which use such tools, most of which only assess post-procedure scores. Of the limited studies available, some scoring systems that have been used include the Happiness Measures Scale, FACE-Q, and Derriford Appearance Scale (Litner). [2-4] Of course, without any reports of studies that evaluate the patient’s perception of their problem both before and after a cosmetic procedure, clinicians will not have a baseline in which to compare their patient’s results.

Conclusion

In summary, the field of cosmetic dermatology is growing rapidly and can be expected to continue this trend for years to come. It is the responsibility of the physician to understand what is driving their patient’s decisions and interpret if there is a psychiatric illness contributing. In order to do this, we feel there must be an objective means to measure dissatisfaction and satisfaction before and after any cosmetic procedure is pursued with emphasis on pre-procedure evaluation.

Monday, July 27, 2020

Application of Magnetized Water Irrigation for Agricultural Products - Juniper Publishers

 Horticulture & Arboriculture - Juniper Publishers

Opinion

Magnetic phenomena are common in nature. With the rapid development of magnetic biology, researches on magnetized water theory and applied technology have been carried out in many places in the world, and significant progress has been made in basic experimental materials and microscopic mechanism. There is no unified conclusion on the mechanism of magnetized water in the academic circle. However, many studies showed that the magnetic field intensity, magnetization time, raw water quality and water velocity and other factors have important influences on the physical and chemical properties of magnetized water.

Regular water can become magnetized when it passes through a magnetic field of a certain strength perpendicular to the magnetic line at a certain speed. After water is magnetized, the original structure of water is changed, which changes the physical and chemical characteristics of water molecules to some extent, such as the transformation of macromolecular clusters into individual water molecules or dimers, and the reduction of the expression tension coefficient of water molecules, thus promoting the growth and development of plants and the improvement of environment. The crystallization of minerals in the soil due the small molecules Increases permeability and solubility in cell metabolism which promotes the absorption and utilization of nutrients in soil by plants. Therefore, magnetized water irrigation provides a new way to increase crop yield and improve site environment, which not only increases the research and application in agricultural and forestry production, but also enriches the research content of biomagnetism.

Since the 1970s, magnetized water has been applied to agricultural production in countries in the world, and the research scope involves food crops, fruits and vegetables, edible fungi and poultry. The results showed that magnetized water had significant effects on soil improvement, seed germination, crop stress resistance and crop yield. Therefore, the organic combination of magnetized water treatment technology with the development and utilization of low-quality water resources and the improvement of soil quality is of great significance for the efficient utilization of magnetized water, agricultural production increment and quality improvement. Based on field experiment and laboratory test research magnetized water irrigation (such as saline water and brackish water, water containing cadmium) soil micro ecological environment, mineral nutrient transport, plant photosynthetic performance plant growth, yield and quality characteristics were studied by many researchers. The cationic dynamics of mesophyll cells, root tip meristem and elongation region were observed in real time by noninvasive micrometry. 

The characteristics of bacterial community structure in continuous cropping and cadmium-contaminated soil were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Soil microenvironment, yield composition and flavor nutrition of different fruits and vegetables under continuous cropping mode were determined and analyzed. The physiological and ecological responses of the difficult rooting trees were measured in real time by magnetizing devices with different magnetic field intensities. The effects of magnetized water irrigation on soil physical properties, enzyme activity, mineral nutrient content and plant biological characteristics of salinized soil and cadmium-polluted soil were also studied. Through these researches, researches try to clarify the mechanism of plant biology and physiological response to micro ecological environment after the irrigation of magnetized water. Though magnetized water irrigation has been used to improve agricultural production and many researches have done to study the mechanisms of bio-magnetism, much of it remains unknown and further researches should be done for us to learn more about bio-magnetism.

Friday, July 24, 2020

Etiological Diagnosis in Orthodontics and Interceptive Possibilities - Juniper Publishers

Orthopedic & Orthoplastic Surgery - Juniper Publishers

Abstract

The search of etiological factors is a fundamental step in the diagnosis. The success of orthodontic treatment is essentially based on the quality of the clinical observation; any cause related to malocclusion must be identified and analyzed. The acquired knowledge and clinical experience, then, will allow the best choice of the therapeutic method. The mechanisms of facial development and growth are numerous and strongly nested; thus, it is difficult to identify all the etiological factors involved in orthodontic malocclusions, but we can determine a large number among them and avoid their impact and so, many anomalies. The mistake would be to not suppress them or act late. Anomalies may appear, or become worse if they already exist, or relapse after orthodontic treatment.

Keywords: etiological factors diagnosis malocclusions orthodontic treatment

Introduction

It may be interesting to introduce by answering the question: Why the etiological diagnosis?
And the answer is that it is an essential element for orthodontic care since it allows to:
a) identify the causes involved in the appearance of malocclusions;
b) evaluate the muscular and functional environment and so the chances of stability after treatment [1].
c) analyze the evolution of the anomaly and to determine the prognosis;
d) consider etiological treatment which will consider the possibilities of prevention and interception according to age [2,3].
e) facilitate treatment with often, fewer orthodontic extractions;
f) decrease the duration of treatment and risk of relapse in the short and long term.

Etiological Factors and Orthodontic Anomalies

The orthodontic literature attaches great importance to etiopathogeny, and the various factors involved in the appearance of anomalies [4,5]. These have been the subject of multiple searches and classifications. This led to establishing general and local causes of orthodontic anomalies. Factors are considered intrinsic or extrinsic. It may be heredity, congenitalcauses, predisposing metabolic disease, nutritive deficiency, factors related to the muscular environment, the orofacial functions disorders (improper deglutition, speech defects, abnormal chewing), and the presence of harmful habits (thumb or lip sucking) [6,7] or dental causes (premature dental contact, early loss of primary teeth, trauma). It is important to note that most orthodontic anomalies [8] have multifactorial etiologies and that it is difficult to distinguish between the part that goes with predeterminism and that related to the environment. Moreover, it is recognized that neuromuscular behavior may be genetic in origin and that hereditary abnormalities may cause functional disturbances. The prognosis is naturally more reserved when a hereditary etiology is implicated. The practitioner must take this into account at the time of the therapeutic decision.

Interceptive Possibilities

While it is difficult to act on certain predetermined etiological factors, many can be improved. The goal is to prevent the onset or aggravation of abnormalities and recurrence after treatment. For this, we can use simple methods and appliances:
a. dental caries screening and endodontic care of temporary dentition to ensure the balanced development of the dentoalveolar arches;
b. maintaining the space in case of premature loss of the primary teeth to avoid the loss of space and dental crowding [9,10];
c. unlocking the occlusion to allow growth to express itself normally in case of deep bite, anterior or lateral crossbite;
d. treatment of breathings problems (buccal breathing) by the otolaryngologist and the orthodontist;
e. functional education of swallowing and chewing, suppression of harmful habits to avoid their impact in the onset of bone or dentoalveolar anomalies and prevent their recurrence after treatment [1];
f. suppression of possible obstacles (premature dental contact, hypertrophic labial frenum, short lingual frenum, supernumerary teeth, persistent temporary teeth).

Conclusion

The essential concern of the orthodontist is the success of the treatment; the etiological analysis is a crucial step in establishing the diagnosis. It is possible to avoid long and difficult care for both the patient and the practitioner by intervening early and effectively on the causes of certain orthodontic abnormalities knowing that the association; etiological treatment and treatment of the anomaly is possible. The results remain stable with a reduced risk of recurrence, the approach depends however on the patient’s cooperation and the isolated or nonisolated, primary or secondary nature of the etiology involved.


Conservation Planning in Anthropogenic Landscapes - Juniper Publishers

Ecology & Conservation Science - Juniper Publishers Abstract Landscape-scale conservation planning offers a way out to the e...